The PDF version of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is the preferred version if you are planning to print out materials from the Chart User's Guide. Printer outputs of the online edition will vary depending upon browser type, viewing settings, printer driver settings and printer type. Chart User's Guide breakout editions, VFR, IFR Enroute and Terminal Procedures Chart Products editions can be found in each chart type terms section.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide - Complete Edition (PDF, 11.5 MB)

Effective Date: 29 March 2018

INTRODUCTION

This Chart User's Guide is an introduction to the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) aeronautical charts and publications. It is useful to new pilots as a learning aid, and to experienced pilots as a quick reference guide.

The FAA is the source for all data and information utilized in the publishing of aeronautical charts through authorized publishers for each stage of Visual Flight Rules (VFR) and Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) air navigation including training, planning, and departures, enroute (for low and high altitudes), approaches, and taxiing charts. Digital charts are available online at:

Paper copies of the charts are available through an FAA Approved Print Provider. A complete list of current providers is available at http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/flight_info/aeronav/print_providers/

The FAA Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) Pilot/Controller Glossary defines in detail, all terms and abbreviations used throughout this publication. Unless otherwise indicated, miles are nautical miles (NM), altitudes indicate feet above Mean Sea Level (MSL), and times used are Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

The Notices to Airmen Publication (NOTAM) includes current Flight Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs. NOTAMs alert pilots of new regulatory requirements and reflect changes to Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs), flight restrictions, and aeronautical chart revisions. This publication is prepared every 28 days by the FAA, and is available by subscription from the Government Printing Office. For more information on subscribing or to access online PDF copy, http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/notices/

In addition to NOTAMs, the Chart Supplement and the Safety Alerts/Charting Notices page of the Aeronautical Information Services website are also useful to pilots.

KEEP YOUR CHARTS CURRENT

Aeronautical information changes rapidly, so it is important that pilots check the effective dates on each aeronautical chart and publication. To avoid danger, it is important to always use current editions and discard obsolete charts and publications.

To confirm that a chart or publication is current, refer to the next scheduled edition date printed on the cover. Pilots should also check Aeronautical Chart Bulletins and NOTAMs for important updates between chart and publication cycles that are essential for safe flight.

EFFECTIVE DATE OF CHART USERS GUIDE AND UPDATES

All information in this guide is effective as of 29 March 2018. All graphics used in this guide are for educational purposes. Chart symbology may not be to scale. Please do not use them for flight navigation.

The Chart User's Guide is updated as necessary when there is new chart symbology or changes in the depiction of information and/or symbols on the charts. When there are changes, it will be published in accordance with the 56-day aeronautical chart product schedule.

COLOR VARIATION

Although the digital chart files are compiled in accordance with these specifications, the final product may vary slightly in appearance due to differences in printing techniques/processes and/or digital display techniques.

REPORTING CHART DISCREPANCIES

Your experience as a pilot is valuable and your feedback is important. We make every effort to display accurate information on all FAA charts and publications, so we appreciate your input. Please notify us concerning any requests for changes, or potential discrepancies you see while using our charts and related products.

FAA, Aeronautical Information Services
Customer Operations Team
1305 East-West Highway
SSMC4 Suite 4400
Silver Spring, MD 20910-3281

Telephone Toll-Free 1-800-638-8972
E-mail: 9-AMC-Aerochart@faa.gov

DOWNLOADABLE EDITION (PDF)

For reference purposes the 29 March 2018 Edition of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is available in a PDF format for download. Due to the large file size we recommend that you use a broadband Internet connection to reduce the download time.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide - Complete edition (PDF, 11.5 MB)

The PDF version of the Chart User's Guide is the preferred version if you are planning to print out materials from the Chart User's Guide. Printer outputs of the online edition will vary depending upon browser type, viewing settings, printer driver settings and printer type.

Online Chart User's Guide - Update as of 29 March 2018

A new feature to the Online Chart User's Guide is this What's New section which will highlight new charting symbology and other changes to charts.

The following charting items have been added to the Online Chart User's Guide since the Guide was last published on 1 February 2018:

VFR Charts

No Changes Applied.

IFR Enroute Charts

No Changes Applied.

Terminal Procedure Publications

BRIEFING STRIP INFORMATION
Equipment/Requirements Notes Box    
Addition of equipment requirements notes box to the IAP briefing strip. For more information see TPP Terms > Briefing Strip Information > Middle Briefing Strip > Notes Box section.

(Single Equipment Box)
 

(Two Equipment Boxes)

VFR CHARTING PRODUCTS

This chapter covers the Sectional Aeronautical Chart (Sectional). These charts include the most current data at a scale of (1:500,000) which is large enough to be read easily by pilots flying by sight under Visual Flight Rules. Sectionals are named after a major city within its area of coverage.

DOWNLOADABLE VISUAL CHARTING PRODUCTS EDITION (PDF)

For reference purposes the 29 March 2018 Edition of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is available in a PDF format for download. Due to the large file size we recommend that you use a broadband Internet connection to reduce the download time.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide - Visual Charting Products Only Edition (PDF, 5.6 MB)

The PDF version of the Chart User's Guide is the preferred version if you are planning to print out materials from the Chart User's Guide. Printer outputs of the online edition will vary depending upon browser type, viewing settings, printer driver settings and printer type.

EXPLANATION OF VFR TERMS AND SYMBOLS

The chart legend includes aeronautical symbols and information about drainage, terrain, the contour of the land, and elevation. You can learn to identify aeronautical, topographical, and obstruction symbols (such as radio and television towers) by using the legend.

A brief description next to a small black square indicates the exact location for many of the landmarks easily recognized from the air, such as stadiums, pumping stations, refineries, etc. A small black open circle with descriptive type indicates oil, gas or mineral wells. A small black circle with descriptive type indicates water, oil or gas tanks. The scale for some items may be increased to make them easier to read on the chart.

Aeronautical Information Services' charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Committee (IAC) and are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Department of Defense (DoD).

WATER FEATURES (HYDROGRAPHY)

open inland water Water features are depicted using two tones of blue, and are considered either "Open Water" or "Inland Water." "Open Water," a lighter blue tone, shows the shoreline limitations of all coastal water features at the average (mean) high water levels for oceans and seas. Light blue also represents the connecting waters like bays, gulfs, sounds and large estuaries.

Exceptionally large lakes like the Great Lakes, Great Salt Lake, and Lake Okeechobee, etc., are considered Open Water features. The Open Water tone extends inland as far as necessary to adjoin the darker blue "Inland Water" tones. All other bodies of water are marked as "Inland Water" in the darker blue tone.

LAND FEATURES (TERRAIN) AND OBSTRUCTIONS

The elevation and configuration of the Earth's surface is important to pilots. Our Aeronautical Information Specialists are devoted to showing the contour of the earth and any obstructions clearly and accurately on our charts. We use five different techniques: contour lines, shaded relief, color tints, obstruction symbols, and Maximum Elevation Figures (MEF).terrain contours

1. Contour lines join points of equal elevation. On Sectionals, basic contours are spaced at 500' intervals. Intermediate contours are typically at 250' intervals in moderately level or gently rolling areas. Auxiliary contours at 50', 100', 125', or 150' intervals occasionally show smaller relief features in areas of relatively low relief. The pattern of these lines and their spacing gives the pilot a visual concept of the terrain. Widely spaced contours represent gentle slopes, while closely spaced contours represent steep slopes.shaded relief

2. Shaded relief shows how terrain may appear from the air. Shadows are shown as if light is coming from the northwest, because studies have shown that our visual perception has been conditioned to this view.

hypsotints

3. Different color tints show bands of elevation relative to sea level. These colors range from light green for the lower elevations, to dark brown for the higher elevations.

4. Obstruction symbols show man made vertical features that could affect safe navigation. FAA's Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) maintains a database of over 351,148 obstacles in the United States, Canada, the Caribbean, Mexico and U.S. Pacific Island Territories. Aeronautical Specialists evaluate each obstacle based on charting specifications before adding it to a visual chart. When a Specialist is not able to verify the position or elevation of an obstacle, it is marked UC, meaning it is "under construction" or being reported, but has not been verified.

The FAA uses a Digital Obstacle File (DOF) to collect and disseminate data. Because land and obstructions frequently change, the source data on obstructions and terrain is occasionally incomplete or not accurate enough for use in aeronautical publications. For example, when the FAA receives notification about an obstruction, and there is insufficient detail to determine its position and elevation, the FAA Flight Edit Program conducts an investigation.

The Flight Edit crew visually verifies the cultural, topographic, and obstacle data. Charts are generally flight-checked every four years. This review includes checking for any obstruction that has been recently built, altered, or dismantled without proper notification.

obstacles Sectional Charts, Terminal Area (TACs) and Caribbean Charts (CACs) typically show manmade obstacles extending more than 200' Above Ground Level (AGL), or more than 299' AGL in yellow city tint. Features considered to be hazardous obstacles to low-level flight are; smokestacks, tanks, factories, lookout towers, and antennas, etc.



stack and flag Manmade features used by FAA Air Traffic Control as checkpoints use a graphic symbol shown in black with the required elevation data in blue. The elevation of the top of the obstacle above Mean Sea Level (MSL) and the height of the structure (AGL) is also indicated (when known or can be reliably determined by a Specialist). The AGL height is in parentheses below the MSL elevation. In extremely congested areas, the FAA typically omits the AGL values to avoid confusion.

maximum elevation figure5. The Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) represents the highest elevation within a quadrant, including terrain and other vertical obstacles (towers, trees, etc.). A quadrant on Sectionals is the area bounded by ticked lines dividing each 30 minutes of latitude and each 30 minutes of longitude. MEF figures are rounded up to the nearest 100' value and the last two digits of the number are not shown.

MEFs over land and open water areas are used in areas containing manmade obstacles such as oil rigs.

In the determination of MEFs, the FAA uses extreme care to calculate the values based on the existing elevation data shown on source material. Aeronautical Information Specialists use the following procedure to calculate MEFs:

MEF - Manmade Obstacle

When a manmade obstacle is more than 200' above the highest terrain within the quadrant:

1. Determine the elevation of the top of the obstacle above MSL.

2. Add the possible vertical error of the source material to the above figure (100' or 1/2 contour interval when interval on source exceeds 200'. U.S. Geological Survey Quadrangle Maps with contour intervals as small as 10' are normally used).

3. Round the resultant figure up to the next higher hundred-foot level.
Example:    mef 2800 chart example
Elevation of obstacle top (MSL) 2649
Possible obstacle error +100
equals 2749
Raise to the following 100' level 2800
Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) mef 2600 example

MEF - Natural Terrain Feature or Natural Vertical Obstacle

When a natural terrain feature or natural vertical obstacle (e.g. a tree) is the highest feature within the quadrangle:

1. Determine the elevation of the feature.

2. Add the possible vertical error of the source to the above figure (100' or 1/2 the contour interval when interval on source exceeds 200').

3. Add a 200' allowance for uncharted natural or manmade obstacles. Chart specifications don't require the portrayal of obstacles below minimum height.

4. Round the figure up to the next higher hundred-foot level.

 

Example:    mef 13500 chart example
Elevation of obstacle top (MSL) 13161
Possible vertical error +100
Obstacle Allowance +200
equals 13461
Raise to the following 100' level 13500
Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) mef 13500 example

Pilots should be aware that while the MEF is based on the best information available to the Specialist, the figures are not verified by field surveys. Also, users should consult the Aeronautical Chart Bulletin in the Chart Supplement or Aeronautical Information Services website to ensure that your chart has the latest MEF data available.

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RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION

On VFR Charts, information about radio aids to navigation (NAVAID)example navaid box is boxed, as illustrated. Duplication of data is avoided. When two or more radio aids in a general area have the same name with different frequencies, Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) channel numbers, or identification letters, and no misinterpretation can result, the name of the radio aid may be indicated only once within the identification box. Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) Navigation Aid (NAVAID) names and identification boxes (shown in blue) take precedence. Only those items that differ (e.g., frequency, Morse Code) are repeated in the box in the appropriate color. The choice of separate or combined boxes is made in each case on the basis of economy of space and clear identification of the radio aids.

example of a compass rose with vor NAVAID boxA NAVAID that is physically located on an airport may not always be represented as a typical NAVAID symbol. A small open circle indicates the NAVAID location when collocated with an airport icon.

The type of NAVAID will be identified by: "VOR," (VHF Omni-Directional Range) "VORTAC" (VOR Tactical Aircraft Control), "VOR-DME," (VOR-Distance Measuring Equipment) or DME (Distance Measuring Equipment) positioned on and breaking the top line of the NAVAID box.

DMEs are shown without the compass rose.

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AIRPORTS

Airports in the following categories are charted as indicated (additional symbols are shown later in this Section).

Public use airports:

vfr airport hard surfaced over 8069 feet Hard-surfaced runways greater than 8069' or some multiple runways less than 8069'
vfr airport hard surfaced 1500 feet to 8069 feet Hard-surfaced runways 1500' to 8069'
vfr airport symbol with tick marks Other than hard-surfaced runway
vfr seaplane symbol Seaplane base

Military airports:

vfr airport military airports other than hard surfaced Other than hard-surfaced runway

Hard-surfaced runways are depicted the same as public-use airports.

U.S. military airports are identified by abbreviations such as AAF (Army Air Field), AFB (Air Force Base), MCAS (Marine Corps Air Station), NAS (Naval Air Station), NAV (Naval Air Facility), NAAS (Naval Auxiliary Air Station), etc. Canadian military airports are identified by the abbreviation DND (Department of National Defense).

Fuel Available:

vfr airport symbol with tick marks Tick marks around the basic airport symbol indicate that fuel is available Monday through Friday 10:00 AM to 4:00 PM local time.

Other airports with or without fuel:

vfr airport symbols that indicate whether fuel is or is not available

Airports are plotted in their true geographic position unless the symbol conflicts with a NAVAID at the same location. In such cases, the airport symbol will be displaced, but the relationship between the airport and the NAVAID will be retained.

Airports are identified by their designated name. Generic parts of long airport names (such as "airport," "field," or "municipal") and the first names of persons are commonly omitted unless they are needed to distinguish one airport from another with a similar name.

The figure at right illustrates the coded data that is provided along with the airport name.

The elevation of an airport is the highest point on the usable portion of the landing areas. Runway length is the length of the longest active runway, including displaced thresholds and excluding overruns. Runway length is shown to the nearest 100', using 70 as the rounding point; a runway 8070' in length is charted as 81, while a runway 8069' in length is charted as 80. If a seaplane base is collocated with an airport, there will be additional seaplane base water information listed for the elevation, lighting and runway.

Flight Service Station on field

Airports where fixed wing special VFR operations are prohibited (shown above airport name) FAR 91

Indicates FAR 93 Special Air Traffic Rules and Airport Traffic Pattern

Location Identifier

ICAO Location Identifier

Control Tower (CT) - primary frequency

Star indicates operation part-time. See tower frequencies
tabulation for hours of operation

Follows the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)

Automatic Terminal Information Services

Automatic Flight Information Service

Automated Surface Weather Observing Systems;
shown when full-time ATIS is not available.

vfr airport data grouping

Elevation in feet

Lighting in operation Sunset to Sunrise

Lighting limitations exist; refer to Chart Supplement

 

Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet; usable length may be less.

Aeronautical advisory station


Runways with Right Traffic Patterns (public use)

See Chart Supplement

VFR Advisory Service Shown when ATIS is not available and frequency is other than the primary CT frequency.

Weather Camera (Alaska)

Airport of Entry

When information is lacking. the respective character is replaced by a dash. Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights and may not represent the longest runway or full length lighting.

vfr airport data grouping

Airports with Control Towers (CT) and their related data are shown in blue. All other airports and their related data are shown in magenta. The L symbol symbol indicates that runway lights are on from dusk to dawn. Aasterisk L indicates that the pilot must consult the Chart Supplement to determine runway lighting limitations, such as: available on request (by radio-call, letter, phone, etc), part-time lighting, or pilot/airport controlled lighting. Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights. The lighted runway may not be the longest runway available, and lights may not be illuminated along the full length of the runway. The Chart Supplement has a detailed description of airport and air navigation lighting aids for each airport. A dash represents no runway edge lights.

The symbol airport beacon star indicates the existence of a rotating or flashing airport beacon operating from dusk to dawn. The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) thoroughly explains the types and uses of airport lighting aids.

Right traffic information is shown using the abbreviation 'RP' for right pattern, followed by the appropriate runway number(s) (RP 18). Special conditions or restrictions to the right pattern are indicated by the use of an asterisk (RP*) to direct the pilot to the Chart Supplement for special instructions and/or restrictions.

The type "OBJECTIONABLE" associated with an airport symbol indicates that an objectionable airspace determination has been made for the airport per FAA JO 7400.2 Section 4, Airport Charting and Publication of Airport Data. Objectionable airspace determinations are based upon a number of factors including conflicting traffic patterns with another airport, hazardous runway conditions, or natural or man-made obstacles in close proximity to the landing area. FAA Regional Airports Offices are responsible for airspace determinations. Address any challenges to objectionable airspace determinations to your FAA Regional Airports Office.

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CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Controlled airspace consists of those areas where some or all aircraft may be subject to air traffic control, such as: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, Class E Surface (SFC) and Class E Airspace.

Class A Airspace within the United States extends from 18,000' up to 60,000' MSL. While visual charts do not depict Class A, it is important to note its existence.

Class B Airspace is shown in abbreviated form on the Caribbean Charts (CAC).class b altitudes The Sectional Aeronautical Chart (Sectional) and Terminal Area Chart (TAC) show Class B in greater detail. The MSL ceiling and floor altitudes of each sector are shown in solid blue figures with the last two zeros omitted. Floors extending "upward from above" a certain altitude are preceded by a (+). Operations at and below these altitudes are outside of Class B Airspace. Radials and arcs used to define Class B are prominently shown on TACs. Detailed rules and requirements associated with the particular Class B are shown. The name by which the Class B is shown as las vegas class bfor example.

class c altitudesClass C Airspace is shown in abbreviated form on Caribbean Charts (CAC). Sectionals and TACs show Class C in greater detail. The MSL ceiling and floor altitudes of each sector are shown in solid magenta figures with the last two zeros eliminated.

surface to class b baseThe figure at left identifies a sector that extends from the surface to the base of the Class B.

Class C Airspace is identified by name: burbank class c.

Separate notes, enclosed in magenta boxes, give the approach control frequencies to be used by arriving VFR aircraft to establish two-way radio communication before entering the Class C (generally within 20 NM): class c note.

Class C operating less than continuous is indicated by the following note: class c notam note

Class D Airspace is identified with a blue dashed line. Class D operating less than continuous is indicated by the following note: class d notam note.

Ceilings of Class D are shown as follows: class d ceiling.
A minus in front of the figure is used to indicate "from surface to, but not including..."

Class E Surface (SFC) Airspace is symbolized with a magenta dashed line. Class E (SFC) operating less than continuous is indicated by the following note: class e notam note.

class e vignettes Class E Airspace exists at 1200' AGL unless designated otherwise. The lateral and vertical limits of all Class E, (up to, but not including 18,000') are shown by narrow bands of vignette on Sectionals and TACs.

Controlled airspace floors of 700' above the ground are defined by a magenta vignette; floors other than 700' that laterally abut uncontrolled airspace (Class G) are defined by a blue vignette; differing floors greater than 700' above the ground are annotated by a symbol and a number indicating the floor. airspace floors
If the ceiling is less than 18,000' MSL, the value (preceded by the word "ceiling") is shown along the limits of the controlled airspace. These limits are shown with the same symbol indicated above.

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UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Class G Airspace within the United States extends up to 14,500' Mean Sea Level. At and above this altitude is Class E, excluding the airspace less than 1500' above the terrain and certain special use airspace areas.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

Special Use Airspace (SUA) confines certain flight activities and restricts entry, or cautions other aircraft operating within specific boundaries. Except for Controlled Firing Areas, SUA areas are depicted on VFR Charts. Controlled Firing Areas are not charted because their activities are suspended immediately when spotter aircraft, radar, or ground lookout positions indicate an aircraft might be approaching the area. Nonparticipating aircraft are not required to change their flight paths. SUA areas are shown in their entirety (within the limits of the chart), even when they overlap, adjoin, or when an area is designated within another area. The areas are identified by type and identifying name/number, and are positioned either within or immediately adjacent to the area.

alert areas

OTHER AIRSPACE AREAS

Mode C Required Airspace (from the surface to 10,000' MSL) within a 30 NM radius of the primary airport(s) for which a Class B is designated, is depicted by a solid magenta line.mode c

Mode C is required, but not depicted for operations within and above all Class C up to 10,000' MSL.

Enroute Mode C requirements (at and above 10,000' MSL except in airspace at and below 2500' AGL) are not depicted. See FAR 91.215 and the AIM.

FAR 93 Airports and heliports under Federal Aviation Regulation 93 (FAR 93), (Special Air Traffic Rules and Airport Traffic Patterns), are shown by "boxing" the airport name.
far 93 airport

FAR 91 Airports where fixed wing special visual flight rules operations are prohibited (FAR 91) are shown with the type "NO SVFR" above the airport name.

National Security Areas indicated with a broken magenta line national security area dashes and Special Flight Rules Areas (SFRAs) indicated with the following symbol: sfras , consist of airspace with defined vertical and lateral dimensions established at locations where there is a requirement for increased security and safety of ground facilities. Pilots should avoid flying through these depicted areas. When necessary, flight may be temporarily prohibited.

The Washington DC Flight Restricted Zone (FRZ) is related to National Security. It is depicted using the Prohibited/Restricted/Warning Area symbology frz and is located within the SFRA. It is defined as the airspace within approximately a 13 to 15 NM radius of the DCA VOR-DME. Additional requirements are levied upon aviators requesting access to operate inside the National Capital Region.

Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) Areas Relating to National Security are indicated with a broken blue line tfr dashes . A Temporary Flight Restriction (TFR) is a type of Notice to Airmen (NOTAM). A TFR defines an area where air travel is restricted due to a hazardous condition, a special event, or a general warning for the entire airspace. The text of the actual TFR contains the fine points of the restriction. It is important to note that only TFRs relating to National Security are charted.

Air Defense Identification Zones (ADIZs) are symbolized using the ADIZ symbol: adiz. As defined in Code of Federal Regulations 14 (CFR 14) Part 99, an ADIZ is an area in which the ready identification, location, and control of all aircraft is required in the interest of national security. ADIZ boundaries include Alaska, Hawaii, Guam, Canada and the Contiguous U.S.

Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSAs) are shown in their entirety, symbolized by a screened black outline of the entire area including the various sectors within the area trsa.

The outer limit of the entire Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSA is a continuous screened black line. The various sectors within the TRSA are symbolized by narrower screened black lines.

Each sector altitude is identified in solid black color by the MSL ceiling and floor values of the respective sector, eliminating the last two zeros. A leader line is used when the altitude values must be positioned outside the respective sectors because of charting space limitations. The TRSA name is shown near the north position of the TRSA as follows: palm springs trsa . Associated frequencies are listed in a table on the chart border.

Military Training Routes (MTRs) are shown on Sectionals and TACs. They are identified by the route designator: mtr. Route designators are shown in solid black on the route centerline, positioned along the route for continuity. The designator IR or VR is not repeated when two or more routes are established over the same airspace, e.g., IR201-205-227. Routes numbered 001 to 099 are shown as IR1 or VR99, eliminating the initial zeros. Direction of flight along the route is indicated by small arrowheads adjacent to and in conjunction with each route designator.

The following note appears on Helicopters, Sectionals and TACs except for Hawaiian Islands which is different.

mtr note

There are IFR (IR) and VFR (VR) routes as follows:

Route identification:

a. Routes at or below 1500' AGL (with no segment above 1500') are identified by four-digit numbers; e.g., VR1007, etc. These routes are generally developed for flight under Visual Flight Rules.

b. Routes above 1500' AGL (some segments of these routes may be below 1500') are identified by three or fewer digit numbers; e.g., IR21, VR302, etc. These routes are developed for flight under Instrument Flight Rules.

MTRs can vary in width from 4 to 16 nautical miles. Detailed route width information is available in the Flight Information Publication (FLIP) AP/1B (a Department of Defense publication), or through the 56 Day NASR Subscription from the National Flight Data Center (NFDC).

Special Military Activity areas are indicated on Sectionals by a boxed note in black type. The note contains radio frequency information for obtaining area activity status.
special military activity note


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TERMINAL AREA CHART (TAC) COVERAGE

TAC coverage is shown on appropriate Sectionals by a 1/4" masked line as indicated below.
Within this area pilots should use TACs, which provide greater detail. A note indicating that the area is on the TAC appears near the masked boundary line.

tac coverage

INSET AND SPECIAL CHART COVERAGE

Inset and Special Chart Coverage (i.e., Grand Canyon Chart) is shown on appropriate Sectionals by a 1/8" masked line as indicated below. A note to this effect appears near the masked boundary line. (Additional examples shown in VFR Sectional and Terminal Charts > Navigational and Procedural Information > Chart Limits.)

inset coverage



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CHART TABULATIONS

Airport Tower Communications are provided in a columnized tabulation for all tower-controlled airports that appear on the respective chart. Airport names are listed alphabetically. If the airport is military, the type of airfield, e.g., AAF, AFB, NAS, is shown after the airfield name. In addition to the airport name, tower operating hours, primary Very High Frequency/Ultra High Frequency (VHF/UHF) local Control Tower (CT), Ground Control (GND CON), and Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) frequencies, when available, will be given. Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR) and/or Precision Approach Radar (PAR) procedures are listed when available.

Approach Control Communications are provided in a columnized tabulation listing Class B, Class C, Terminal Radar Service Areas (TRSA) and Selected Approach Control Facilities when available. Primary VHF/UHF frequencies are provided for each facility. Sectorization occurs when more than one frequency exists and/or is approach direction dependent. Availability of service hours is also provided.

Special Use Airspace (SUA): Prohibited, Restricted and Warning Areas are presented in blue and listed numerically for U.S. and other countries. Restricted, Danger and Advisory Areas outside the U.S. are tabulated separately in blue. A tabulation of Alert Areas (listed numerically) and Military Operations Areas (MOA) (listed alphabetically) appear on the chart in magenta. All are supplemented with altitude, time of use and the controlling agency/contact facility, and its frequency when available. The controlling agency will be shown when the contact facility and frequency data is unavailable.



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CARIBBEAN VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS (CAC)

Starting in 2016, the FAA CARIBBEAN VFR Aeronautical Charts were first published, replacing the discontinued WACs, parts of CH-25, CJ-26, and CJ-27, with CJ-26's last effective date of 1 February 2018 and CJ-27 last effective date of 29 March 2018. The Caribbean Charts are published as two VFR Charts: Caribbean 1 (CAC-1) covers Southern Florida, Cuba, Haiti and the Bahamas; Caribbean 2 (CAC-2) covers Puerto Rico, Haiti, Dominican Republic, the Lesser Antilles and Leeward Islands. CAC-1 is updated annually and CAC-2 biannually.

Caribbean Area of Coverage

Caribbean Charts are designed for VFR and provide aeronautical and topographic information of the Caribbean. The aeronautical information includes airports, radio aids to navigation, Class B airspace and special use airspace. The topographic information includes city tint, populated places, principal roads, drainage patterns and shaded relief.

The chart symbols used on the Caribbean Charts are similar to those used in the Sectional and Terminal Area Charts, the major difference being in scale. The Caribbean VFR Chart scale is 1:1,000,000 vs the Sectional Chart Scale of 1:500,000 and Terminal Area Chart Scale of 1:250,000. Chart symbology will appear smaller on the Caribbean VFR Charts.

Example from Caribbean 1 VFR Aeronautical Chart

CAC1-chart-example

Airport Traffic Service and Airport Space Information Unique to CAC

Only airway and reserved airspace effective below 18,000' MSL in the U.S. airspace and below FL200 outside of the U.S. airspace are shown.

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VFR SECTIONAL AND TERMINAL CHARTS

GENERAL INFORMATION

The symbols shown in this section illustrate those that appear in the Sectional Aeronautical Charts (Sectionals) and Terminal Area Charts (TACs). The same symbology is utilized in VFR Flyway Planning Charts, Helicopter Route Charts and Caribbean Aeronautical Charts (CACs), however the scale of the symbols may be different due to the particular chart scales. Where symbology is distinctive to a given chart, examples and explanations are given in the additional examples.

VFR AERONAUTICAL CHARTS

Airports
LANDPLANE:
CIVIL

Airports having control towers (CT) are shown in blue, all others are shown in magenta.

All recognizable runways, including some which may be closed, are shown for visual identification purposes. Fuel available.

Runway patterns will be depicted at airports with at least one hard surfaced runway 1500´ or greater in length.
vfr landplane civil LANDPLANE:
EMERGENCY


Fuel not available

or

Complete information is not available.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



Add appropriate note as required for hard surfaced runways only: "(CLOSED)"
PUBLIC USE - (Soft surfaced runway, or hard surfaced runway less than 1500' in length.) Fuel not available.

RESTRICTED OR PRIVATE - (Soft surfaced runway, or hard surfaced runway less than 1500' in length.) Use only in emergency, or by specific authorization.


OBJECTIONABLE is an airport that has an airspace determination based upon a number of factors including conflicting traffic patterns with another airport, hazardous runway conditions, or natural or man-made obstacles in close proximity to the landing area.
LANDPLANE:
CIVIL-MILITARY
vfr landplane civil military UNVERIFIED - A landing area available but warranting more than ordinary precaution due to:
(1) lack of current information on field conditions,

and/or

(2) available information indicates peculiar operating limitations.
LANDPLANE:
MILITARY


Refueling and repair services not indicated.
vfr landplane military ABANDONED - Depicted for landmark value or to prevent confusion with an adjacent usable landing area. (Normally at least 3000' paved).
HELIPORT
(Selected)
vfr heliport
SEAPLANE: CIVIL vfr seaplane civil SEAPLANE:
EMERGENCY

Fuel not available or complete information is not available.
vfr seaplane emergency
ULTRALIGHT
FLIGHT PARK

(Selected)
vfr ultralight

AIRPORT DATA GROUPING
(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value.

"OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.
vfr airport data grouping

Flight Service Station on field

Airports where fixed wing special VFR operations are prohibited (shown above airport name) FAR 91

Indicates FAR 93 Special Air Traffic Rules and Airport Traffic Pattern

Location Identifier

ICAO Location Identifier

Control Tower (CT) - primary frequency

Star indicates operation part-time. See tower frequencies
tabulation for hours of operation

Follows the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)

Automatic Terminal Information Services

Automatic Flight Information Service

Automated Surface Weather Observing Systems;
shown when full-time ATIS is not available.

vfr airport data grouping

Elevation in feet

Lighting in operation Sunset to Sunrise

Lighting limitations exist; refer to Chart Supplement

Length of longest runway in hundreds of feet; usable length may be less.

Aeronautical advisory station


Runways with Right Traffic Patterns (public use)

See Chart Supplement

VFR Advisory Service Shown when ATIS is not available and frequency is other than the primary CT frequency.

Weather Camera (Alaska)

Airport of Entry

When information is lacking. the respective character is replaced by a dash. Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights and may not represent the longest runway or full length lighting.

vfr airport data grouping
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Radio Aids to Navigation
VOR
example of vor depicted with associated NAV Box labled; star next to 116.8 labeled - operates less than continuous or On-request; Negative T labled in the upper right handside of the box - Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB); the underline under the NAV frequency 116.8 labeled - underline indicates no voice on this frequency NON-DIRECTIONAL
RADIO BEACON (NDB)
example of ndb depiction with two examples depicted, from top to bottom: NDB and an airport dicted in the same location as the NDB with the airport symbol on top of the NDB symbol; example NDB NAV box depicted with a label - NDB (LF) frequency underlined labeled - underline indicates no voice on this frequency.
VORTAC
When an NDB NAVAID shares the same name and Morse Code as the VOR NAVAID the frequency can be collocated inside the same box to conserve space.


example of vortac depicted with associated NAV Box labled; frequency labeled - frequency; channel labeled - channel; NAVAID 3 letter ident - identifier; morse code labeled - morse code; in the upper right hand side, a negative H - Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Services (HIWAS)
NDB-DME example of ndb depiction with two examples depicted, from top to bottom: NDB-DME and an airport dicted in the same location as the NDB-DME with the airport symbol on top of the NDB symbol; example NDB-DME NAV box depicted
VOR-DME vfr vor-dme NAVAID USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE
ILS COMPONENTS

ILS-DME

TAC - Shown when used in description of Class B airspace.


ILS Components
DME

DME co-located at an airport
Note: No compass rose when DME is co-located at an airport.
vfr vor-dme
DME co-located at an airport
COMPASS ROSE vfr compass rose navaid colocated at an airport COMPASS ROSETTE
Shown only in areas void of VOR roses.

Compass rosette will be based on the five year epoch magnetic variation model.
vfr compass rosette navaid colocated at an airport
AUTOMATED WEATHER BROADCAST SERVICES
Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB)

Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Services (HIWAS)

Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) / Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS).

vfr weather services
OFF AIRPORT AWOS/ASOS off airport weather services - ASOS example
BROADCAST STATIONS (BS)
On request by the proper authority or when a VFR Checkpoint


broadcast stations
ALASKA WEATHER CAMERA
Stand-Alone

Collocated with Airport - Must be within 2 NM to have same name.
Alaska Weather Cameras
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)

Heavy line box indicates Flight Service Station (FSS). Frequencies 121.5, 122.2, 243.0 and 255.4 (Canada - 121.5, 126.7, and 243.0) are normally available at all FSSs and are not shown above boxes. All other frequencies are shown. Frequencies transmit and receive except those followed by an R.
R - receive only


off airport weather services - ASOS example
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)
Frequencies above thin line box are remoted to NAVAID site. Other frequencies at FSS providing voice communication may be available determined by altitude and terrain. Consult Chart Supplement for complete information.

Thin line box without frequencies and controlling FSS name indicates no FSS frequency available.
off airport weather services - ASOS example
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT SERVICE STATION internatoinal flight service station    
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Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Sectional Terminal Area Chart (TAC)
vfr sectional chart class b example vfr terminal area chart (TAC) class b example
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL are shown.

(Mode C see FAR 91.215 / AIM)
All mileages are nautical (NM).

All radials are magnetic.
 
CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)


vfr class c
CLASS D AIRSPACE

Altitude in hundreds of feet MSL

(A minus in front of the figure is used to indicate "from surface to but not including..."



vfr class d airspace examples; from top to bottom: class d airspace with class d exclusion area; class d airspace with class e extension
 
CLASS E AIRSPACE
The limits of Class E airspace shall be shown by narrow vignettes or by the dashed magenta symbol. Individual units of designated airspace are not necessarily shown; instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall be defined by the following:

Airspace beginning at the surface (sfc) designated around airports...
vfr class e airspace Airspace beginning at the surface (sfc) designated around airports)...

Airspace beginning at the surface (sfc) with an airspace exclusion area where Class E airspace is excluded below 1200' MSL.
vfr class e airspace with an exclusion
Airspace beginning at 700 feet AGL...

Airspace beginning at 700 feet AGL that laterally abuts uncontrolled airspace (Class G)...
vfr class e airspacevfr class e airspace Airspace beginning at 1200 feet AGL or greater that laterally abuts uncontrolled airspace
(Class G)...
vfr class e airspace
Differentiates floors of airspace greater than 700 feet above the surface...

When the ceiling is less than 18,000 feet MSL, the value prefixed by the word "ceiling", shall be shown along the limits.
vfr class e airspace    
LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAYS VOR AND LF/MF (CLASS E AIRSPACE)
Low altitude Federal Airways are indicated by centerline.

Only the controlled airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown



vfr low alt airways; from top to bottom: alternate airway radial (victor route); enroute airway radial (victor route); lf/mf airway; RNAV 2 Route - T route and TK Route (helicopter RNAV Route)
MISCELLANEOUS AIR ROUTES
Combined Federal Airway/RNAV 2 "T" Routes are identified in solid blue type adjacent to the solid magenta federal airway identification.

The joint route symbol is screened magenta.


vfr misc air routes; from top to bottom: bahama route; oceanic and ATS route; atlantic route; class G route; federal/RNAV 2 Route
CANADIAN AIRSPACE

Individual units of designated Canadian airspace are not necessarily shown; instead, the aggregate lateral and vertical limits shall be portrayed as closely as possible to the comparable U.S. airspace.

Appropriate notes as required may be shown


from top to bottom, examples of Canadian airspace boundaries: TCA Class B/C/D boundary; TCA ceiling and floor altitude example; canadian class d airspace example; canadian class e airspace example
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIR)


OCEANIC CONTROL AREAS (OCA)


CONTROL AREAS (CTA)


From top to bottom, example of vfr fir boundary, oceanic control area boundary and control area boundary
OFFSHORE CONTROL AREAS

from top to bottom, two examples of vfr offshore control areas
 
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
National Park, Wildlife Refuge, Primitive and Wilderness Areas, etc. vfr special conservation areas - example of wildlife refuge boundary NOAA Regulated National Marine Sanctuary Designated Areas vfr special conservation areas - example of NOAA Regulated National Marine Sanctuary

SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS (SFRA and TFR)
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example: Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Note: Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.




vfr sfra
vfr chart example of sfra
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example: Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.




vfr tfr
vfr chart example of tfr
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) vfr sfra FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

       
Flight Restrictec Zone
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.
vfr special use airspace - three examples: from top to bottom: example of prohibited or restricted or warning airspace; example of alert area airspace; example of military operations area airspace NATIONAL SECURITY AREA
Appropriate notes as required may be shown
vfr example of national security area boundary
SPECIAL AWARENESS TRAINING AREAS Special Awareness Training Areas boundary example
MODE C (FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr mode c boundary example
SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES / AIRPORT PATTERNS
(FAR Part 93)


Appropriate boxed note as required shown adjacent to area.
vfr special air traffic rules AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note: Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.


vfr adiz boundary
HIGH ENERGY RADIATION AREAS




Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr high energy radiation areas SPECIAL SECURITY NOTICE PERMANENT CONTINUOUS FLIGHT RESTRICTION AREAS vfr adiz
SPORTING EVENT TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR) SITES vfr sporting event temporary flight restriction site
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) vfr mtr SPACE OPERATIONS AREA (FAR Part 91.143) vfr space operations area
SPECIAL MILITARY ACTIVITY ROUTES (SMAR)


Boxed notes shown adjacent to route.
vfr smar MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITY AREAS
Aerobatic Practice Area

Glider Operations

Hang Glider Activity

Ultralight Activity

Unmanned Aircraft Activity

Parachute Jumping Area with Frequency


Space Launch Activity Area

vfr misc airspace areas; from top to bottom: Glider Practice Area symbology; hand glider activity symbology; ultralight activity symbology; unmanned aircraft activity symbology; parachute jump area area symbology with 122.9 frequency; spach launch activity area symbol
IFR ROUTES

Arrival

Departure

Arrival/Departure


vfr ifr routes

TAC only

VFR TRANSITION ROUTES
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Uni-directional

Bi-directional

Bi-directional with NAVAID Ident and Radial


vfr transition routes

TAC only

Example: Los Angeles
vfr transition route chart example, Los Angeles Terminal Area Chart example
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA)
TRSA Name

TRSA Boundaries

TRSA Sectors


Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
vfr trsa Example: Harrisburg, PA
vfr transition routes; sectional chart example depicting Harrisburg, PA TRSA

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Navigational and Procedural Information
ISOGONIC LINE AND VALUE
Isogonic lines and values shall be based on the five year epoch magnetic variation model.


vfr isogonic lines
AERONAUTICAL LIGHTS
By Request

Rotating or Oscillating

Isolated Location

Rotating Light with Flashing Code Identification Light



Rotating Light with Course Lights and Site Number
vfr aeronautical lights
LOCAL MAGNETIC NOTES
Unreliability Notes


vfr local mag notes
INTERSECTIONS
Named intersections used as reporting points. Arrows are directed toward facilities which establish intersection.

vfr intersections
MARINE LIGHTS
With Characteristics of Light

Red
White
Green
Blue
Sector
Fixed
Single Occulting
Group Occulting
Composite Group Occulting
Isophase
Flashing
Group Flashing
Composite Group Flashing
Quick
Interrupted Quick
Morse Code
Fixed and Flashing
Alternating
Group
Long Flash
Group Quick Flashing
Interrupted Quick Flashing
Very Quick Flashing
Group Very Quick Flashing
Interrupted Very Quick Flashing
Ultra Quick Flashing
Interrupted Ultra Quick
     Flashing
vfr marine lights

* Marine Lights are white unless otherwise noted. Alternating lights are red and white unless otherwise noted.
AIRPORT BEACONS
Rotating or Flashing



Isolated Locations

vfr airport beacons
VFR CHECKPOINTS



Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint.

vfr checkpoints
VFR WAYPOINTS

RNAV


Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint

vfr waypoints
OBSTRUCTION
Above 200' & below 1000' AGL (above 299' AGL in urban area)

Under Construction (UC) or reported and position/elevation unverified

1000' and higher (AGL)

Wind Turbine
vfr obstruction GROUP OBSTRUCTION
Above 200' & below 1000' AGL (above 299' AGL in urban area)

1000' and higher (AGL)

At least two in group
1000' and higher (AGL)

Wind Turbines
vfr group obstruction
HIGH-INTENSITY OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS

Less than 1000' (AGL)

1000' and higher (AGL)


Wind Turbine


Group obstruction


Wind Turbines

High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.
vfr high intensity obstructions WIND TURBINE FARMS
When highest wind turbine is unverified, UC will be shown after MSL value.


vfr wind turbine
MAXIMUM ELEVATION FIGURE (MEF)
(see VFR Terms tab for explanation)
vfr mef

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Chart Limits
OUTLINE ON SECTIONAL OF TERMINAL AREA CHART vfr tac outline OUTLINE ON SECTIONAL OF INSET CHART vfr outline inset
OUTLINE OF SPECIAL CHART ON SECTIONAL AND TERMINAL AREA CHART vfr grand canyon special VFR outline

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Culture
RAILROADS
RAILROADS
Single Track


Double Track


More Than Two Tracks


Electric


Non-operating, Abandoned or Under Construction
vfr railroad symbology; from top down: single track; double track; more than two tracks; electric tracks; non-operating, abandoned or under construction railroads RAILROAD YARDS
Limiting Track To Scale


Location Only
vfr railroad yard vfr railroad yard location
RAILROAD STATIONS vfr railroad station
RAILROAD SIDINGS AND SHORT SPURS vfr railroad spur

ROADS
ROADS
Dual-Lane Divided Highway Category 1

Primary
Category 2

Secondary
Category 2
vfr roads and highway symbolody; from top down: dual-lane divided highway, category 1; primary road, category 2; secondary road, category 2 ROAD MARKERS
Interstate Route No.


U.S. Route No.

Air Marked Identification Label
vfr road markers, from top to bottom: interstate route number; U.S. route number, air marked identification label
TRAILS
Category 3

Provides symbolization for dismantled railroad when combined with label "dismantled railroad."
vfr trails, category 3 ROAD NAMES vfr road names
ROADS UNDER CONSTRUCTION vfr road under construction

RELATED FEATURES TO RAILROADS AND ROADS
BRIDGES AND VIADUCTS
Railroad
vfr railroad bridge BRIDGES AND VIADUCTS
Road
vfr road bridges
CAUSEWAYS vfr causeways FERRIES, FERRY SLIPS AND FORDS vfr ferries
OVERPASSES AND UNDERPASSES vfr overpasses and underpasses
TUNNELS-ROAD AND RAILROAD vfr tunnels

POPULATED PLACES
Yellow tinted areas indicate populated places.

Small circle indicates an area too small to depict using yellow tint.


Large Cities Category 1 - population more than 250,000

Cities and Large Towns Category 2
- population 25,000 to 250,000

Towns and Villages Category 3
- population less than 25,000
vfr populated areas depiction, from top to bottom: large cities, category 1; cities and large towns, category 2; towns and villages category 3


BOUNDARIES
INTERNATIONAL vfr international boundary TIME ZONES vfr timezones
STATE OR PROVINCE vfr state line
CONVENTION OR MANDATE LINE vfr convention line DATE LINE vfr date line

MISCELLANEOUS CULTURAL FEATURES
DAMS vfr dams DAM CARRYING ROAD vfr dam carrying road
PASSABLE LOCKS vfr locks SMALL LOCKS vfr small locks
WEIRS AND
JETTIES
vfr weirs and jetties SEAWALLS vfr seawall
BREAKWATERS vfr breakwater PIERS, WHARFS,
QUAYS, ETC.
vfr powerlines
PIPELINES

 

Underground

vfr pipelines POWER TRANSMISSION AND TELECOMMUNICATION LINES vfr powerlines
LANDMARK FEATURES vfr misclaneous cultural features TANKS vfr tanks
MINES OR QUARRIES
Shaft Mines or Quarries
vfr quarries OUTDOOR
THEATER
vfr outdoor theater
WELLS
Other than water
vfr wells RACE TRACKS vfr racetracks
LOOKOUT TOWERS vfr lookout towers COAST GUARD STATION vfr coast guard station
AERIAL CABLEWAYS, CONVEYORS, ETC. vfr cableway LANDMARK AREAS vfr landmark

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Hydrography
OPEN WATER vfr open water INLAND WATER vfr inland water
OPEN/INLAND WATER vfr open inland water SHORELINES
Definite

 

 


Fluctuating

 

 


Unsurveyed
Indefinite

 

 

Man-made

vfr shorelines
LAKES
Label as required.

Perennial
When too numerous to show individual lakes, show representative pattern and descriptive note. Number indicates elevation.

Non-Perennial
(dry, intermittent, etc.) Illustration includes small perennial lake
vfr lakes


vfr lakes


vfr lakes
RESERVOIRS
Natural Shorelines




Man-made Shorelines
Label when necessary for clarity


Too small to show to scale

Under Construction
vfr reservoirs

vfr reservoirs

vfr reservoirs

vfr reservoirs

STREAMS CANALS

Perennial

Non-Perennial


Fanned Out
Alluvial fan




Braided




Disappearing



Seasonally Fluctuating
with undefined limits


with maximum bank limits, prominent and constant

Sand Deposits in and along riverbeds
vfr streams perennial non vfr streams fan braid disappearing vfr streams seasonal vfr streams sand deposits



To Scale

 

Abandoned or Under Construction

 

Abandoned to Scale

vfr canals
SMALL CANALS AND DRAINAGE / IRRIGATION DITCHES
Perennial


Non-Perennial



Abandoned or Ancient



Numerous
Representative pattern and/or descriptive note.


Numerous
Perennial canals Non-Perennial canals Abandoned or Ancient canals Numerous canals

Numerous canals
WET SAND AREAS
Within and adjacent to desert areas
vfr wet sand areas
AQUEDUCTS

To Scale


Abandoned or Under Construction

 

Underground

vfr aqueducts

Suspended or Elevated

 

Tunnels

 

Kanats
Underground with Air Vents

vfr aqueducts tunnels

FALLS
Double-Line



Single-Line

vfr falls RAPIDS
Double-Line



Single-Line

vfr rapids
SALT EVAPORATORS
AND SALT PANS MAN EXPLOITED
vfr salt evaporators SWAMPS, MARSHES AND BOGS vfr swamp marsh bog
HUMMOCKS AND RIDGES vfr hummocks MANGROVE AND NIPA vfr mangroves
PEAT BOGS vfr peat bogs CRANBERRY BOGS vfr cranberry bog
RICE PADDIES
Extensive areas indicated by label only.
vfr rice paddies LAND SUBJECT TO INUNDATION vfr land subject to inundation
SPRINGS, WELLS AND WATERHOLES vfr springs wells TUNDRA vfr tundra
GLACIERS vfr glaciers GLACIAL MORAINES vfr glacial moraines
ICE CLIFFS vfr ice cliffs SNOWFIELDS, ICE FIELDS AND ICE CAPS vfr snowfields
ICE PEAKS vfr ice peaks FORESHORE FLATS
Tidal flats exposed at low tide.
vfr foreshore flats
ROCKS-ISOLATED
Bare or Awash
vfr rocks WRECKS
Exposed

vfr wrecks
REEFS-ROCKY OR CORAL vfr coral ICE

 

Permanent
Polar Ice

 

 

 

Pack Ice

vfr ice
FISH PONDS AND HATCHERIES vfr fish hatchery
MISCELLANEOUS UNDERWATER FEATURES NOT OTHERWISE SYMBOLIZED vfr shoals

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Relief
CONTOURS
Basic


Approximate

 

 

Intermediate

 

Auxiliary

 


Depression
(Illustration includes mound within depression)


Values
vfr contours vfr contours intermediate vfr depression SPOT ELEVATIONS
Position Accurate

Position Accurate, Elevation Approximate

Highest in General Area

Highest on Chart
vfr spot elevations
MOUNTAIN PASS vfr mountain pass
DISTORTED SURFACE AREAS vfr distorted surface
LAVA FLOWS vfr lava flows
SAND OR GRAVEL AREAS vfr sand or gravel SAND RIDGES
To Scale
vfr sand ridges
SAND DUNES
To Scale
vfr sand dunes SHADED RELIEF vfr shaded relief
HACHURING vfr hachuring ROCK STRATA OUTCROP vfr rock strata outcrop
QUARRIES TO SCALE vfr quarries to scale STRIP MINES, MINE DUMPS AND TAILINGS
To Scale
vfr strip mine
CRATERS vfr craters ESCARPMENTS, BLUFFS, CLIFFS, DEPRESSIONS, ETC. vfr escarpments
UNSURVEYED AREAS
Label appropriately as required
vfr unsurveyed UNCONTOURED AREAS
Label appropriately as required
vfr uncontoured
LEVEES AND ESKERS vfr levee esker    

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VFR FLYWAY PLANNING CHARTS

GENERAL INFORMATION

VFR Flyway Planning Charts are printed on the reverse sides of the Baltimore-Washington, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas-Ft. Worth, Denver/Colorado Springs, Detroit, Houston, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Orlando, New Orleans, Phoenix, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco and Seattle Terminal Area Charts (TACs). The scale is 1:250,000, with area of coverage the same as the associated TACs. Flyway Planning Charts depict flight paths and altitudes recommended for use to by-pass areas heavily traversed by large turbine-powered aircraft. Ground references on these charts provide a guide for visual orientation. VFR Flyway Planning charts are designed for use in conjunction with TACs and are not to be used for navigation.

Airports
LANDPLANE
No distinction is made between airports with fuel and those without fuel. Runways may be exaggerated to clearly portray the pattern. Hard-surfaced runways which are closed but still exist are included in the charted pattern.

FAR 91 - Fixed wing special VFR operations prohibited.
flyway airports - unpaved airport example AGUA DOLCE (L70)


flyway airports - paved airport depicting airport runway pattern
LANDPLANE
(continued)

(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value. "OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.

ABANDONED - Depicted for landmark value or to prevent confusion with an adjacent usable landing area. Only portrayed beneath or close to the VFR flyway routes or requested by the FAA. (Normally at least 3000' paved).
flyway airports top to bottom: example of Private Airport; example of abandoned airport




flyway airports

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Radio Aids to Navigation
VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL
RADIO RANGE (VOR)
VOR

VORTAC


VOR-DME

 

DME

Example: DME co-located at an airport.

 

flyway vhf based navaids, from top to bottom: VOR symbol with navaid box MAL - VOR identifier, 109.6 - VOR Frequency; VORTAC example: VORTAC symbology, NAVAID box CYG VORTAC ident, 113.4 VORTAC frequency with hash marks over the frequency to indicate shutdown status of NAVAIDflyway vor examples: from top to bottom: VOR-DME - VOR-DME symobology and NAVAID box - FHM VOR-DME ident, 114.2 frequency underlined indicating no voice on this frequency; DME NAVAID symbology and NAVAID box, PVU DME ident, 108.4 DME frequency
DME co-located an airport
NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO BEACON
(NDB)

NDB-DME

flyway ndb
NAVAIDS USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE flyway navaids

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Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see
FAR 91.215/AIM)

All mileages are nautical (NM).

All radials are magnetic.
flyway class b CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

(Mode C see
FAR 91.215/AIM)
flyway class c
CLASS D AIRSPACE flyway class d CLASS E SURFACE (SFC) AIRSPACE flyway class e

 

SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY


Example:Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.

chart exampleflyway chart - special flight rules area (SFRA) relating to national airspace; example taken from Washington DC Area Flyway
FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example: Washington DC
chart example of flyway chart depicting flight restricted zone related to National Security; example taken from Washington DC Area Flyway
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR)
RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY

Example:

Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

flyway tfr; example from Washington DC Area Flyway of P-40 and R-4009
SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.
flyway special use airspace AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.
flyway adiz
SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES/AIRPORT TRAFFIC AREAS (FAR Part 93)
Appropriate boxed note as required shown adjacent to area.
flyway special air traffic rules areas MODE C (FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
flyway mode c
SPORTING EVENT TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR) SITES vfr sporting event temporary flight restriction site
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA) flyway trsa MISCELLANEOUS ACTIVITY AREAS
Aerobatic Practice Area


Glider Operations


Hang Glider Activity

Ultralight Activity


Unmanned Aircraft Activity

Parachute Jumping Area
with Frequency

Space Launch Activity Area
flyway misc airspace areas
IFR ROUTES

Arrival


Departure


Arrival/Departure
flyway ifr routes
VFR TRANSITION ROUTES
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Uni-directional

Bi-directional

Bi-directional with NAVAID Ident and Radial



flyway transition routes
Example: Los Angeles
flyway transition routes; chart example from Los Angeles Flyway chart
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
NOAA Regulated
National Marine
Sanctuary Designated
Areas
flyway special conservation areas SUGGESTED VFR FLYWAY AND ALTITUDE flyway suggested flyway and altitude
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) flyway mtr

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Navigational and Procedural Information
VFR CHECKPOINTS
Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint
flyway vfr checkpoints OBSTRUCTIONS
Only obstacles greater than 999' above ground level (AGL) or specified by the local ATC Facility shall be shown.

AGL heights are not shown.
High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.

Under Construction or reported and position/elevation unverified.

flyway obstructions


flyway obstructions

flyway obstructions
VFR WAYPOINTS
Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint
vfr waypoints
NAVIGATIONAL DATA flyway navigational data

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Culture
RAILROADS
Single and Multiple Tracks
flyway railroads ROADS
Dual-Lane

Divided Highway Primary
flyway roads
POPULATED PLACES
Built-up Areas

Towns

flyway populated areas
PROMINENT PICTORIALS flyway prominent pictorials
POWER TRANSMISSION LINES flyway power transmission lines
BOUNDARIES
International
flyway boundaries LANDMARKS flyway landmarks

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Hydrography
SHORELINES flyway shorelines RESERVOIRS flyway reservoirs
MAJOR LAKES AND RIVERS flyway major lakes and rivers

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Relief
SPOT ELEVATIONS
Position Accurate Mountain Peaks
flyway spot elevation

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HELICOPTER ROUTE CHARTS

GENERAL INFORMATION

Helicopter Route Charts are three-color charts that depict current aeronautical information useful to helicopter pilots navigating in areas with high concentrations of helicopter activity. Information depicted includes helicopter routes, four classes of heliports with associated frequency and lighting capabilities, NAVAIDS, and obstructions. In addition, pictorial symbols, roads, and easily-identified geographical features are portrayed. The scale is 1:125,000. These charts are updated every three years or as needed to accommodate major changes.

HELICOPTER ROUTE CHARTS

Airports
LANDPLANE
All recognizable runways, including some which may be closed, are shown for visual identification.


Public

Private

Unverified

Abandoned
helicopter airports HELIPORT
Heliports public and private

Hospital Helipads

Trauma Center

Helipads located at major airports
(when requested)
heliports
SEAPLANE helicopter seaplane ultralight park ULTRALIGHT
FLIGHT PARK
helicopter seaplane ultralight park

AIRPORT DATA GROUPING
Boxed airport name indicates airport for which a Special Traffic Rule has been established.
(Pvt): Non-public use having emergency or landmark value.
"OBJECTIONABLE": This airport may adversely affect airspace use.
helicopter airport data grouping
Flight Service Station on field

Airspace where fixed wing special visual flight rules operations are prohibited (shown above airport name) FAR 91

Indicates FAR 93 Special Air Traffic Rules and Airport Traffic

Location Identifier

ICAO Location Identifier

Control Tower (CT) - primary frequency

Star indicates operation part-time. See tower frequencies tabulation for hours of operation

helicopter airport data grouping Automated Terminal Information Service

Automated Surface Weather Observing Systems (shown when full-time ATIS is not available). Some ASOS/AWOS facilities may not be located at airports

Elevation in feet

Lighting in operation Sunset to Sunshine

Lighting limitations exists, refer to Chart Supplement

UNICOM - Aeronautical advisory station

Follows the Common Traffic Advisory Frequency (CTAF)

Unverified Heliport

Airport of Entry

helicopter airport data grouping 2
When lighting is lacking, the respective character is replaced by a dash.

Lighting codes refer to runway edge lights and may not represent be the longest runway or full length lighting. Dashes are not shown on heliports or helipads unless additional information follows the elevation (e.g. UNICOM, CTAF).

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Radio Aids to Navigation
NAVAIDs
VHF OMNI-DIRECTIONAL RADIO (VOR) RANGE
Open circle symbol shown when NAVAID located on airport. Type of NAVAID shown in top of box.

Compass Rose is "reference" oriented to magnetic north.
helicopter vfr chart - vor NON-DIRECTIONAL RADIO BEACON (NDB)

 


NDB-DME

helicopter vfr chart -  ndb
VOR helicopter vfr chart -  vor NAVAID USED TO DEFINE CLASS B AIRSPACE

helicopter vfr chart -  navaids used to define class b airspace
VORTAC
When an NDB NAVAID shares the same name and Morse Code as the VOR NAVAID the frequency can be collocated inside the same box to conserve space.


helicopter vfr chart -  vortac
VOR-DME helicopter vfr chart - vor-dme BROADCAST STATIONS (BS)
On request by the proper authority or when a VFR Checkpoint.

 



helicopter vfr chart - broadcast stations
DME
helicopter vfr chart - dme
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)

Heavy line box indicates Flight Service Station (FSS) Frequencies 121.5, 122.2, 243.0 and 255.4 (Canada 121.5, 126.7, and 243.0) are available at many FSSs and are not shown above boxes. All other frequencies are shown.

Certain FSSs provide Airport Advisory Service, refer to Chart Supplement.

R - Receive Only



helicopter vfr chart - fss
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)

Frequencies above thin line box are remoted to NAVAID site. Other FSS frequencies providing voice communications may be available as determined by altitude and terrain. Consult Chart Supplement for complete information.

Thin line box without frequencies and controlling FSS name indicators no FSS frequency available.



helicopter vfr chart - rco

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Airspace Information
CLASS B AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown. (Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)

All mileages are nautical (NM)

(Floors extending "upward from above" a certain altitude are preceded by a +. Operations at and below these altitudes are outside of Class B Airspace.)

All radials are magnetic.

helicopter vfr chart - class b airspace CLASS C AIRSPACE
Appropriate notes as required may be shown. (Mode C see FAR 91.215/AIM)
helicopter vfr chart - class c
CLASS D AIRSPACE

(A minus in front of the figure is used to indicate "from surface to but not including...")

Altitudes in hundreds of feet MSL.

helicopter vfr chart - class d
CLASS E SURFACE (SFC) AIRSPACE
helicopter vfr chart - class e sfc

SPECIAL AIRSPACE AREAS
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example: Washington DC

Appropriate notes as required may be shown.

Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.


helicopter vfr chart - special airspace
heli special airspace note
helicopter vfr chart - special airspace example
FLIGHT RESTRICTED ZONE (FRZ) RELATING TO NATIONAL SECURITY
Example:
Washington DC






helicopter vfr chart - special airspace example of FRZ boundary

AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)
Note. Delimiting line not shown when it coincides with International Boundary, projection lines or other linear features.
helicopter vfr chart - adiz SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES / AIRPORT TRAFFIC AREAS (FAR PART 93)
Appropriate boxed notes as required shown adjacent to area.
helicopter vfr chart - special air traffic rules
SPECIAL SECURITY NOTICE PERMANENT CONTINUOUS FLIGHT RESTRICTION AREAS helicopter vfr chart -  adiz SPORTING EVENT TERMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR) SITES helicopter vfr chart -  sporting event
MODE C
(FAR 91.215)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
helicopter vfr chart -  mode c MISCELLANEOUS
ACTIVITY AREAS

Aerobatic Practice Area

Glider Operations

Hang Glider Activity

Ultralight Activity

Unmanned Aircraft Activity

Parachute Jumping Area with Frequency

Space Launch Activity Areas
helicopter vfr chart -  misc airspace areas
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA (TRSA)
Appropriate notes as required may be shown.
helicopter vfr chart - trsa
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR) helicopter vfr chart - mtr
POLICE ZONES helicopter vfr chart - police zones SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE
Only the airspace effective below 18,000 feet MSL is shown.

The type of area shall be spelled out in large areas if space permits.

helicopter vfr chart - sua
HELICOPTER ROUTES
Primary Route with Route Name and Tower Frequency

Secondary Route

Transition Symbol
helicopter vfr chart - helicopter routes One-way Route

Altitude Changeover Point
helicopter vfr chart -  helicopter routes
Reporting Points

Non-compulsory

Compulsory

Reporting Point Name


helicopter vfr chart - helicopter routes Recommended Altitudes

Minimum Altitude

Maximum Altitude

Recommended Altitude

helicopter vfr chart - helicopter routes
CANADIAN AIRSPACE
Class B, C or D TCA

Airspace Ceiling and Floor
helicopter vfr chart - canadian airspace class B, C or D TCA boundary depiction; airspace ceiling and floor Airspace Ceiling helicopter vfr chart -  canadian airspace ceiling
Class B, C or D Control Zone helicopter vfr chart -  canadian airspace class B, C or D control zone bounardies Class E Control Zone helicopter vfr chart -  canadian airspace - class e control zone boundairies
SPECIAL CONSERVATION AREAS
National Park, Wildlife Refuge, Primitive and Wilderness Areas, etc.
helicopter vfr chart - special conservation areas - National Park, wildlife refuge NOAA Regulated National Marine Sanctuary Designated Areas helicopter vfr chart - special conservation areas - NOAA Regulated Area

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Navigational and Procedural Information
VFR CHECKPOINTS
Underline indicates proper name of VFR Checkpoint.
helicopter vfr chart - vfr checkpoints VFR WAYPOINTS
Stand-Alone

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint

Collocated with VFR Checkpoint & Reporting Point

helicopter vfr chart -  vfr waypoints
OBSTRUCTION
Above 299' & below 1000'



Above 1000'
helicopter vfr chart -  obstructions GROUP OBSTRUCTION

Above 299' & below 1000'


Above 1000'
helicopter vfr chart - group obstructions
HIGH-INTENSITY OBSTRUCTION LIGHTS
High-intensity lights may operate part-time or by proximity activation.
helicopter vfr chart - obstructions high-intensity obstruction lights WIND TURBINE FARMS
When highest wind turbine is unverified, UC will be shown after MSL value.
helicopter vfr chart - wind turbine farms
NAVIGATION DATA helicopter vfr chart - navigational data MAXIMUM ELEVATION FIGURE (MEF)
(see VFR Terms tab for explanation)
helicopter vfr chart -  mef

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Culture
RAILROADS
Single Track

Double Track
helicopter vfr chart - railroads BOUNDARIES
International

State or Province
helicopter vfr chart - boundaries
ROADS
Dual-Lane:
Divided Highways

Major Boulevards & Major Streets
Primary
helicopter vfr chart - roads POWER
TRANSMISSION LINES
helicopter vfr chart - power transmission lines
BRIDGES helicopter vfr chart - bridges PROMINENT PICTORIALS helicopter vfr chart - prominent pictorials
POPULATED PLACES
Built-up Areas
helicopter vfr chart - populated areas LANDMARKS helicopter vfr chart - landmarks

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AIRSPACE


vfr airspace classes diagram

U.S. Airspace depiction as shown on Visual Aeronautical Charts

vfr sectional snapshot - effective date 15 sept 2016

Excerpt from Detroit Sectional Chart

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IFR ENROUTE CHARTS

FAA charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Committee (IAC), and are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Department of Defense (DoD). Some information on these charts may only apply to military pilots.

DOWNLOADABLE IFR ENROUTE CHARTING PRODUCTS EDITION (PDF)

For reference purposes the 1 February 2018 Edition of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is available in a PDF format for download. Due to the large file size we recommend that you use a broadband Internet connection to reduce the download time.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide - IFR Enroute Products Only Edition (PDF, 2.9 MB)

The PDF version of the Chart User's Guide is the preferred version if you are planning to print out materials from the Chart User's Guide. Printer outputs of the online edition will vary depending upon browser type, viewing settings, printer driver settings and printer type.

EXPLANATION OF IFR ENROUTE TERMS AND SYMBOLS

The explanations of symbols used on Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) Enroute Charts and examples in this section are based primarily on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Other IFR products use similar symbols in various colors. The chart legends portray aeronautical symbols with a brief description of what each symbol depicts. This section provides more details of the symbols and how they are used on IFR Enroute charts.

AIRPORTS

Active airports are shown on IFR Enroute Charts.

Low Charts:

  • All IAP Airports are shown on the Low Altitude Charts (US and Alaska).
  • Non-IAP Airports are shown on the U.S. Low Altitude Charts (Contiguous US) have a minimum hard surface runway of 3,000'.
  • Non-IAP airports are shown on the U.S. Low Altitude Alaska Charts are show if the runway is 3000' or longer, hard or soft surface.
  • Public heliports with an Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) or requested by the FAA or DoD are depicted on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts.
  • Seaplane bases requested by the FAA or DoD are depicted on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts.

On IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts, airport tabulation is provided which identifies airport names, IDs and the panels they are located on.

High Charts:

  • Airports shown on the U.S. High Enroute Charts (Contiguous US) have a minimum hard surface runway of 5000'.
  • Airports shown on the U.S. High Enroute Alaska Charts have a minimum hard surface runway of 4000'.

Charted airports are classified according to the following criteria:
ifr high low

Blue - Airports with an Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published in the high altitude DoD Flight Information Publications (FLIPs)

Green - Airports which have an approved Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published in either the U.S. Terminal Procedures Publications (TPPs) or the DoD FLIPs

Brown - Airports without a published Instrument Approach Procedure or RADAR MINIMA

Airports are plotted at their true geographic position.

Airports are identified by the airport name. In the case of military airports, Air Force Base (AFB), Naval Air Station (NAS), Naval Air Facility (NAF), Marine Corps Air Station (MCAS), Army Air Field (AAF), etc., the abbreviated letters appear as part of the airport name.

Airports marked "Pvt" immediately following the airport name are not for public use, but otherwise meet the criteria for charting as specified above.

Runway length is the length of the longest active runway (including displaced thresholds but excluding overruns) and is shown to the nearest 100 feet using 70 feet as the division point; e.g., a runway of 8,070' is labeled 81. The following runway compositions (materials) constitute a hard-surfaced runway: asphalt, bitumen, chip seal, concrete, and tar macadam. Runways that are not hard-surfaced have a small letter "s" following the runway length, indicating a soft surface.

AIRPORT DATA DEPICTION
Low Altitude ifr military  
1. Airport elevation given in feet above or below mean sea level

2. Pvt - Private use, not available to general public

3. A solid line box enclosed the airport name indicates FAR 93 Special Requirements - see Directory/Supplement

4. "NO SVFR" above the airport name indicates FAR 91 fixed-wing special VFR flight is prohibited.

5. ifr enroute - airport data block - class c symbology with a C inside a square box or ifr enroute - airport data block - class d symbology with a D inside a square box following the airport identifier indicates Class C or Class D Airspace

6. Associated city names for public airports are shown above or preceding the airport name. if airport name and city name are the same, only the airport name is shown. The airport identifier in parentheses follows the airport name. City names for military and private airports are not shown.

7. Airport Ident ICAO Location Indicator shown outside contiguous U.S.

8. AFIS Alaska only

High Altitude - U.S. ifr military High Altitude - Alaska ifr military
LIGHTING CAPABILITY

Lighting Available

Pilot Controlled Airport

 

ifr airport data, airport lighting symbology

Part-time or on request

No lighting available
At private - indicates no lighting information is available

ifr airport data, airport lighting symbology

A ifr-L symbol between the airport elevation and runway length means that runway lights are in operation sunset to sunrise. Aifr pilot controlled lighting symbol indicates there is Pilot Controlled Lighting. A ifr part time lighting symbol means the lighting is part-time or on request, the pilot should consult the Chart Supplement for light operating procedures. The Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) thoroughly explains the types and uses of airport lighting aids.

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RADIO AIDS TO NAVIGATION

All IFR radio NAVAIDs that have been flight checked and are operational are shown on all IFR Enroute Charts. Very High Frequency/Ultrahigh Frequency (VHF/UHF) NAVAIDs, Very high frequency Omnidirectional Radio range (VORs), Tactical Air Navigation (TACANs) are shown in black, and Low Frequency/Medium Frequency (LF/MF) NAVAIDs, (Compass Locators and Aeronautical or Marine NDBs) are shown in brown.

On IFR Enroute Charts, information about NAVAIDs is boxed as illustrated below. To avoid duplication of data, when two or more NAVAIDs in a general area have the same name, the name is usually printed only once inside an identification box with the frequencies, TACAN channel numbers, identification letters, or Morse Code Identifications of the different NAVAIDs are shown in appropriate colors.

NAVAIDs in a shutdown status have the frequency and channel number crosshatched. Use of the NAVAID status "shutdown" is only used when a facility has been decommissioned but cannot be published as such because of pending airspace actions.

NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION BOXES - COMMON ELEMENTS
LOW ENROUTE CHARTS HIGH ENROUTE CHARTS
RCO Frequencies
NAVAID Name
FREQ, Ident, CH, Morse Code
Latitude, Longitude
Controlling FSS Name
ifr low enroute navigation and communication box example RCO Frequencies
NAVAID Name
Frequency, Ident, Channel,
Latitude, Longitude

Controlling FSS Name
ifr high enroute navigation and communication box example
COMMON ELEMENTS (HIGH AND LOW CHARTS)
RCO FREQUENCY
Single Frequency


Multiple Frequencies

Frequencies transmit and receive except those followed by R and T:
R - Receive Only           T - Transmit Only
ifr navaid box, top of the box, frequencies. Top example is of RCO frequency top of a navaid box; Bottom example is of multiple RCO frequencies atop of NAVAID box
NAVAID BOX

Thin line NAVAID boxes without frequency(s) and FSS radio name indicates no FSS frequencies available.

Shadow NAVAID box indicates NAVAID and Flight Service Station (FSS) have same name.
               VHF/UHF                           LF/MF
example of ifr enroute NAVAID boxes, from left to right, VHF boxes on left hand side, LF boxes on the right hand side
FREQUENCY PROTECTION

Frequency Protection usable range at 18,000' AGL - 40 NM

Frequency Protection usable range at 12,000' AGL - 25 NM


      (L)

      (T)
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT

Facilities that operate in the "Y" mode for DME reception



      (Y)
VOICE COMMUNICATIONS VIA NAVAID

Voice Transmitted

No Voice Transmitted
example voice communication: top example: 112.6; bottom example 111.0 with an underline under the frequency, indicating  no voice transmitted on the frequency.
NAVAID SHUTDOWN STATUS    VHF/UHF        LF/MF
example of hash marks used to indicate navaid is shutdown. Left side example has grey colored hashmarks used on VHF NAVAIDs; the right side example has light brown/tan colored hasmarks used on LF NAVAIDs
PART TIME OR ON-REQUEST    VHF/UHF        LF/MF
example of star used to indicate part-time or on request. Left side depicton is of a 5 point black star used on VHF NAVAIDs. Right side depiction is of a 5 point brown star used on LF NAVAIDs.
AUTOMATED WEATHER BROADCAST SERVICES
ASOS/AWOS - Automated Surface Observing Station/Automated Weather Observing Station

HIWAS - Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service

TWEB - Transcribed Weather Broadcast
depiction of automated weather broadcast service symbology. ASOS/AWOS services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white A for VHF NAVAID, a circle, filled in brown, with a negative white A for a LF NAVAID. HIWAS services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white H for VHF NAVAID, a circle, filled in brown, with a negative white H for a LF NAVAID. TWEB services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white T for a VHF NAVAID, a circle filled in brown, with a negative white T for a LF NAVAID.
Automated weather, when available, is broadcast on the associated NAVAID frequency.
LATITUDE AND LONGTITUDE

Latitude and Longitude coordinates are provided for those NAVAIDs that make up part of a route/airway or a holding pattern.
       LOW ENROUTE                   HIGH ENROUTE
depiction of latitude and logtitude, left side depicts low enroute example: lat/long coordinates are enclosed within the NAVAID box; right side depicts high enroute example: lat/long coordinates are shown with latitude coordinate breaking the bottom navid box line, and longtiude coordinates shown on the second, underneith latitude coordinates

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AIRSPACE INFORMATION

CONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Controlled airspace consists of those areas where some or all aircraft are subjected to air traffic control within the following airspace classifications of A, B, C, D, & E.

Air Route Traffic Control Centers (ARTCC) are established to provide Air Traffic Control to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans within controlled airspace, particularly during the enroute phase of flight. Boundaries of the ARTCCs are shown in their entirety using the symbol below.

ARTCC

The responsible ARTCC Center names are shown adjacent and parallel to the boundary line.
ARTCC sector frequencies are shown in boxes outlined by the same symbol.
ARTCC SECTOR FREQUENCIES

Class A Airspace is depicted as open area (white) on the IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. It consists of airspace from 18,000 Mean Sea Level (MSL) to 60,000 MSL. In aviation terms those altitudes are written as FL 180 to FL 600, (18,000 MSL, is Flight Level (FL)180, 60,000 MSL, is FL 600).

Class B Airspace is depicted as screened blue area with a solid line encompassing the area.

Class C Airspace is depicted as screened blue area with a dashed line encompassing the area with a following the airport name.

Class B and Class C Airspace consist of controlled airspace extending upward from the surface or a designated floor to specified altitudes, within which all aircraft and pilots are subject to the operating rules and requirements specified in the Federal Aviation Regulations (UHF) 71. Class B and C Airspace are shown in abbreviated forms on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. A general note adjacent to Class B airspace refers the user to the appropriate VFR Terminal Area Chart.

Class D Airspace (airports with an operating control tower) are depicted as open area (white) with a following the airport name.

Class E Airspace is depicted as open area (white) on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. It consists of airspace below FL180.

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UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE

Class G Airspace within the United States extends to 14,500' MSL. This uncontrolled airspace is shown as screened brown.

On Area Charts any uncontrolled airspace boundaries are depicted with a .012" brown line and a .060" screen brown band on the uncontrolled side, so as to be seen over the terrain.

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE

Special Use Airspace (SUA) confines certain flight activities, restricts entry, or cautions other aircraft operating within specific boundaries. SUA areas are shown in their entirety, even when they overlap, adjoin, or when an area is designated within another area. SUA with altitudes from the surface and above are shown on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. Similarly, SUA that extends above 18,000' MSL are shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. On IFR Enroute Altitude Charts tabulations, identify the type of SUA, ID, effective altitudes, times of use, controlling agency and the panel it is located on.
ifr special use airspace

OTHER AIRSPACE

FAR 91 Special Air Traffic Rules are shown with the type NO SVFR above the airport name.
ifr no svfr

FAR 93 Special Airspace Traffic Rules are shown with a solid line box around the airport name, indicating FAR 93 Special Requirements see Chart Supplement.
ifr FAR 93 Special Requirments example

Mode C Required Airspace (from the surface to 10,000' MSL) within 30 NM radius of the primary airport(s) for which a Class B airspace is designated, is depicted on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts as a blue circle labeled MODE C 30 NM.


ifr mode C
Mode C is also required for operations within and above all Class C airspace up to 10,000' MSL, but not depicted. See FAR 91.215 and the AIM.

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INSTRUMENT AIRWAYS

The FAA has established two fixed route systems for air navigation. The VOR and LF/MF system-designated from 1,200' Above Ground Level (AGL) to but not including FL 180 is shown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts, and the Jet Route system designated from FL 180 to FL 450 inclusive is shown on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts.

VOR LF/MF AIRWAY SYSTEM (IFR LOW ALTITUDE ENROUTE CHARTS)

In this system VOR airways - airways based on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs - are depicted in black and identified by a "V" (Victor) followed by the route number (e.g., "V12").

LF/MF airways - airways based on LF/MF NAVAIDs - are sometimes called "colored airways" because they are identified by color name and number (e.g., "Amber One", charted as "A1"). In Alaska Green and Red airways are plotted east and west, and Amber and Blue airways are plotted north and south. Regardless of their color identifier, LF/MF airways are shown in brown.

AIRWAY/ROUTE DATA

On both series of IFR Enroute Charts, airway/route data such as the airway identifications, magnetic courses bearings or radials, mileages, and altitudes (e.g., Minimum Enroute Altitudes (MEAs), Minimum Reception Altitudes (MRAs), Maximum Authorized Altitudes (MAAs), Minimum Obstacle Clearance Altitudes (MOCAs), Minimum Turning Altitudes (MTAs) and Minimum Crossing Altitudes (MCAs)) are shown aligned with the airway.

As a rule the airway/route data is charted and in the same color as the airway, with one exception. Charted in blue, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) MEAs, identified with a "G" suffix, have been added to "V" and "colored airways" for aircraft flying those airways using Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation.

Airways/Routes predicated on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs are defined by the outbound radial from the NAVAID. Airways/Routes predicated on LF/MF NAVAIDs are defined by the inbound bearing.

  • Minimum Enroute Altitude (MEA) - The MEA is the lowest published altitude between radio fixes that assures acceptable navigational signal coverage and meets obstacle clearance requirements between those fixes. The MEA prescribed for a Federal airway or segment, RNAV low or high route, or other direct route applies to the entire width of the airway, segment, or route between the radio fixes defining the airway, segment, or route. MEAs for routes wholly contained within controlled airspace normally provide a buffer above the floor of controlled airspace consisting of at least 300 feet within transition areas and 500 feet within control areas. MEAs are established based upon obstacle clearance over terrain and manmade objects, adequacy of navigation facility performance, and communications requirements.

  • Minimum Reception Altitude (MRA) - MRAs are determined by FAA flight inspection traversing an entire route of flight to establish the minimum altitude the navigation signal can be received for the route and for off-course NAVAID facilities that determine a fix. When the MRA at the fix is higher than the MEA, an MRA is established for the fix and is the lowest altitude at which an intersection can be determined.

  • Maximum Authorized Altitude (MAA) - An MAA is a published altitude representing the maximum usable altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or route segment. It is the highest altitude on a Federal airway, jet route, RNAV low or high route, or other direct route for which an MEA is designated at which adequate reception of navigation signals is assured.

  • Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude (MOCA) - The MOCA is the lowest published altitude in effect between fixes on VOR airways, off-airway routes, or route segments that meets obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route segment. This altitude also assures acceptable navigational signal coverage only within 22 NM of a VOR. The MOCA seen on the enroute chart may have been computed by adding the required obstacle clearance (ROC) to the controlling obstacle in the primary area or computed by using a TERPS chart if the controlling obstacle is located in the secondary area. This figure is then rounded to the nearest 100 foot increment (i.e., 2,049 feet becomes 2,000, and 2,050 feet becomes 2,100 feet). An extra 1,000 feet is added in mountainous areas, in most cases.

  • Minimum Turning Altitude (MTA) - Minimum turning altitude (MTA) is a charted altitude providing vertical and lateral obstruction clearance based on turn criteria over certain fixes, NAVAIDs, waypoints, and on charted route segments. When a VHF airway or route terminates at a NAVAID or fix, the primary area extends beyond that termination point. When a change of course on VHF airways and routes is necessary, the enroute obstacle clearance turning area extends the primary and secondary obstacle clearance areas to accommodate the turn radius of the aircraft. Since turns at or after fix passage may exceed airway and route boundaries, pilots are expected to adhere to airway and route protected airspace by leading turns early before a fix. The turn area provides obstacle clearance for both turn anticipation (turning prior to the fix) and flyover protection (turning after crossing the fix). Turning fixes requiring a higher MTA are charted with a flag along with accompanying text describing the MTA restriction.

  • Minimum Crossing Altitude (MCA) - An MCA is the lowest altitude at certain fixes at which the aircraft must cross when proceeding in the direction of a higher minimum enroute IFR altitude. MCAs are established in all cases where obstacles intervene to prevent pilots from maintaining obstacle clearance during a normal climb to a higher MEA after passing a point beyond which the higher MEA applies. The same protected enroute area vertical obstacle clearance requirements for the primary and secondary areas are considered in the determination of the MCA.


airway route data

AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) "T" ROUTE SYSTEM

The FAA has created new low altitude area navigation (RNAV) "T" routes for the enroute and terminal environments. The RNAV routes will provide more direct routing for IFR aircraft and enhance the safety and efficiency of the National Airspace System. To utilize these routes aircraft are required to be equipped with IFR approved GNSS. In Alaska, TSO-145a and 146a equipment is required.

Low altitude RNAV only routes are identified by the prefix "T", and the prefix "TK" for RNAV helicopter routes followed by a three digit number (T-200 to T-500). Routes are depicted in blue on the IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts. RNAV route data (route line, identification boxes, mileages, waypoints, waypoint names, magnetic reference courses and MEAs) will also be printed in blue. Magnetic reference courses will be shown originating from a waypoint, fix/reporting point or NAVAID. GNSS MEA for each segment is established to ensure obstacle clearance and communications reception. GNSS MEAs are identified with a "G" suffix.

T-route

TK-route

Joint Victor/RNAV routes are charted as outlined above except as noted. The joint Victor route and the RNAV route identification boxes are shown adjacent to each other. Magnetic reference courses are not shown. MEAs are charted above the appropriate identification box or stacked in pairs, GNSS and Victor. On joint routes, RNAV specific information will be printed in blue.
T-route-2

OFF ROUTE OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OROCA)

The Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude (OROCA) is depicted on IFR Enroute Low Altitude and Pacific charts and is represented in thousands and hundreds of feet above MSL. OROCAs are shown in every 30 x 30 minute quadrant on Area Charts, every one degree by one degree quadrant for IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - U.S. and every two degree by two degree quadrant on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts - Alaska. The OROCA represents the highest possible obstruction elevation including both terrain and other vertical obstruction data (towers, trees, etc.) bounded by the ticked lines of latitude/longitude including data 4 NM outside the quadrant. In this example the OROCA represents 12,500 feet.

OROCA is computed just as the Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) found on Visual Flight Rule (VFR) Charts except that it provides an additional vertical buffer of 1,000 feet in designated non-mountainous areas and a 2,000 foot vertical buffer in designated mountainous areas within the United States. For areas in Mexico and the Caribbean, located outside the U.S. Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ), the OROCA provides obstruction clearance with a 3,000 foot vertical buffer. Evaluating the area around the quadrant provides the chart user the same lateral clearance an airway provides should the line of intended flight follow a ticked line of latitude or longitude. OROCA does not provide for NAVAID signal coverage, communication coverage and would not be consistent with altitudes assigned by Air Traffic Control. OROCAs can be found over all land masses and open water areas containing man-made obstructions (such as oil rigs).
OROCA

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MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTRs)

Military Training Routes (MTRs) are routes established for the conduct of low-altitude, high-speed military flight training (generally below 10,000 feet MSL at airspeeds in excess of 250 knots Indicated Air Speed). These routes are depicted in brown on IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts, and are not shown on inset charts or on IFR Enroute High Altitude Charts. IFR Enroute Low Altitude Charts depict all IFR Military Training Routes (IRs) and VFR Military Training Routes (VRs), except those VRs that are entirely at or below 1,500 feet AGL.

MTRs are identified by designators (IR-107, VR-134) which are shown in brown on the route centerline. Arrows are shown to indicate the direction of flight along the route. The width of the route determines the width of the line that is plotted on the chart:

Route segments with a width of 5 NM or less, both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .02" line.
MTR-IR

Route segments with a width greater than 5 NM, either or both sides of the centerline, are shown by a .035" line.MTR-VR

MTRs for particular chart pairs (ex. L1/2, etc.) are alphabetically, then numerically tabulated. The tabulation includes MTR type and unique identification and altitude range.

JET ROUTE SYSTEM (HIGH ALTITUDE ENROUTE CHARTS)

Jet routes are based on VOR or VORTAC NAVAIDs, and are depicted in black with a "J" identifier followed by the route number (e.g., "J12"). In Alaska, Russia and Canada some segments of jet routes are based on LF/MF NAVAIDs.

AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) "Q" ROUTE SYSTEM (IFR Enroute HIGH ALTITUDE CHARTS)

The FAA has adopted certain amendments to Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations which paved the way for the development of new area high altitude navigation (RNAV) "Q" routes in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS). These amendments enable the FAA to take advantage of technological advancements in navigation systems such as the GPS. RNAV "Q" Route MEAs are shown when other than FL 180 MEAs for DME/DME/Inertial Reference Unit (IRU) RNAV aircraft have a "D" suffix.
High Alt RNAV

RNAV routes and associated data are charted in blue.

"Q" Routes on the IFR Gulf of Mexico charts are shown in black. Magnetic reference courses are shown originating from a waypoint, fix/reporting point, or NAVAID.

Joint Jet/RNAV route identification boxes will be located adjacent to each other with the route charted in black. With the exception of Q-Routes in the Gulf of Mexico, GNSS or DME/DME/IRU RNAV are required, unless otherwise indicated. DME/DME/IRU RNAV aircraft should refer to the Chart Supplement for DME information. Q-Routes in Alaska are GNSS Only. Altitude values are stacked highest to lowest.
Joint Jet RNAV

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TERRAIN CONTOURS ON AREA CHARTS

Based on a recommendation of the National Transportation Safety Board, terrain contours have been added to the Enroute Area Charts and are intended to increase pilots' situational awareness for safe flight over changes in terrain. The following Area Charts portray terrain: Anchorage, Denver, Fairbanks, Juneau, Los Angeles, Nome, Phoenix, San Francisco, Vancouver and Washington.

When terrain rises at least a 1,000 feet above the primary airports' elevation, terrain is charted using shades of brown with brown contour lines and values. The initial contour will be 1,000 or 2,000 feet above the airports' elevation. Subsequent intervals will be 2,000 or 3,000 foot increments.

Contours are supplemented with a representative number of spots elevations and are shown in solid black. The highest elevation on an Area Chart is shown with a larger spot and text.

The following boxed note is added to the affected Area Charts.
Terrain boxed note

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IFR ENROUTE LOW/HIGH ALTITUDE (U.S., PACIFIC AND ALASKA CHARTS)

Airports
AIRPORT DATA - LOW/HIGH ALTITUDE
CIVIL Charts: HIGH/LOW
ifr civil airport depiction
SEAPLANE - CIVIL Charts: LOW
ifr seaplane civil airport depiction
CIVIL AND MILITARY Charts: HIGH/LOW
ifr civil military airport depiction
HELIPORT Charts: LOW
ifr heliport depiction
MILITARY Charts: HIGH/LOW
ifr military airport depiction
EMERGENCY USE ONLY ifr emergency use only airport/airfield depiction
Facilities in BLUE or GREEN have an approved Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published in either the FAA Terminal Procedures Publication or the DoD FLIPs. Those in BLUE have an Instrument Approach Procedure and/or RADAR MINIMA published at least in the High Altitude DoD FLIPs. Facilities in BROWN do not have a published Instrument Procedure or RADAR MINIMA.

All IAP Airports are shown on the Low Altitude Charts.

Non-IAP Airports shown on the U.S. Low Altitude Charts have a minimum hard surface runway of 3000'.

Airports shown on the U.S. High Altitude Charts have a minimum hard surface runway of 5000'.

Airports shown on the Alaska High Altitude Charts have a minimum hard or soft surface runway of 4000'.

Associated city names for public airports are shown above or preceding the airport name and city name are the same only the airport name is shown. City names for military and private airports are not shown.

The airport identifier in parentheses follows the airport name or Pvt.

Pvt - Private Use

 

AIRPORT DATA DEPICTION
Low Altitude ifr airport data depiction - low enroute charts  
1. Airport elevation given in feet above or below mean sea level

2. Pvt - Private use, not available to general public

3. A solid line box enclosed the airport name indicates FAR 93 Special Requirements - see Directory/Supplement

4. "NO SVFR" above the airport name indicates FAR 91 fixed-wing special VFR flight is prohibited.

5. ifr enroute - airport data block - class c symbology with a C inside a square box or ifr enroute - airport data block - class d symbology with a D inside a square box following the airport identifier indicates Class C or Class D Airspace

6. Associated city names for public airports are shown above or preceding the airport name. If airport name and city name are the same, only the airport name is shown. The airport identifier in parentheses follows the airport name. City names for military and private airports are not shown.

7. Airport Ident ICAO Location Indicator shown outside contiguous U.S.

8. AFIS Alaska only

High Altitude - U.S. ifr airport data depiction - high enroute charts High Altitude - Alaska ifr airport data depiction - high enroute charts - Alaska
LIGHTING CAPABILITY

Lighting Available

Pilot Controlled Airport

 

ifr airport data, airport lighting symbology: L - lighting available; L in a oval shaped - pilot controlled lighting available

Part-time or on request

No lighting available
At private facilities- indicates no lighting information is available

ifr airport data, airport lighting symbology: 5-point star - part-time or on request lighting; dash - no lighting available

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Radio Aids to Navigation
NAVAIDS
   VOR VOR/DME  TACAN  VORTAC    DME    NDB NDB/DME Reporting Function
ifr vor symbology ifr vor-dme symbology ifr tacan symbology ifr vortac symbology ifr stand alone DME symbology ifr ndb symbology ifr ndb-dme symbology Non Compulsory Reporting or Off Airway

Compulsory Reporting
Note: VHF/UHF is depicted in Black. LF/MF is depicted in Brown. RNAV is depicted in Blue
 
COMPASS ROSES
VHF/UHF ifr compass rose - VHF depiction LF/MF ifr compass rose - LF depiction
Compass Roses are orientated to Magnetic North of the NAVAID which may not be adjusted to the charted isogonic values.
COMPASS LOCATOR BEACON
LOW ALTITUDE
ifr compass locator
Chart Example : Enroute Low L-16 US
ifr compass locator beacon chart example

ILS LOCALIZER

ILS Localizer Course with additional navigation function

 


ILS Localizer Back Course with additional navigation function

LOW ALTITUDE

ifr ils localizer symbology
ifr ils backcourse localizer symbology
ILS Localizer Example with Back Course
(Chart: Enroute Low L-1 US)

ifr ils localizer charting example
VOR/DME RNAV WAYPOINT DATA HIGH ALTITUDE - ALASKAifr vor dme rnav waypoint data
 
NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION BOXES - COMMON ELEMENTS
LOW ENROUTE CHARTS HIGH ENROUTE CHARTS
RCO Frequencies
NAVAID Name
FREQ, Ident, CH, Morse Code
Latitude, Longitude
Controlling FSS Name
ifr low enroute navigation and communication box example RCO Frequencies
NAVAID Name
Frequency, Ident, Channel,
Latitude, Longitude

Controlling FSS Name
ifr high enroute navigation and communication box example
COMMON ELEMENTS (HIGH AND LOW CHARTS)
RCO FREQUENCY
Single Frequency


Multiple Frequencies

Frequencies transmit and receive except those followed by R and T:
R - Receive Only           T - Transmit Only
ifr navaid box, top of the box, frequencies. Top example is of RCO frequency top of a navaid box; Bottom example is of multiple RCO frequencies atop of NAVAID box
NAVAID BOX

Thin line NAVAID boxes without frequency(s) and FSS radio name indicates no FSS frequencies available.

Shadow NAVAID box indicates NAVAID and Flight Service Station (FSS) have same name.
               VHF/UHF                           LF/MF
example of ifr enroute NAVAID boxes, from left to right, VHF boxes on left hand side, LF boxes on the right hand side
FREQUENCY PROTECTION

Frequency Protection usable range at 18,000' AGL - 40 NM

Frequency Protection usable range at 12,000' AGL - 25 NM


      (L)

      (T)
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT

Facilities that operate in the "Y" mode for DME reception



      (Y)
VOICE COMMUNICATIONS VIA NAVAID

Voice Transmitted

No Voice Transmitted
example voice communication: top example: 112.6; bottom example 111.0 with an underline under the frequency, indicating  no voice transmitted on the frequency.
NAVAID SHUTDOWN STATUS    VHF/UHF        LF/MF
example of hash marks used to indicate navaid is shutdown. Left side example has grey colored hashmarks used on VHF NAVAIDs; the right side example has light brown/tan colored hasmarks used on LF NAVAIDs
PART TIME OR ON-REQUEST    VHF/UHF        LF/MF
example of star used to indicate part-time or on request. Left side depicton is of a 5 point black star used on VHF NAVAIDs. Right side depiction is of a 5 point brown star used on LF NAVAIDs.
AUTOMATED WEATHER BROADCAST SERVICES
ASOS/AWOS - Automated Surface Observing Station/Automated Weather Observing Station

HIWAS - Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service

TWEB - Transcribed Weather Broadcast
depiction of automated weather broadcast service symbology. ASOS/AWOS services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white A for VHF NAVAID, a circle, filled in brown, with a negative white A for a LF NAVAID. HIWAS services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white H for VHF NAVAID, a circle, filled in brown, with a negative white H for a LF NAVAID. TWEB services are depicted using a circle, filled in black, with a negative white T for a VHF NAVAID, a circle filled in brown, with a negative white T for a LF NAVAID.
Automated weather, when available, is broadcast on the associated NAVAID frequency.
LATITUDE AND LONGTITUDE

Latitude and Longitude coordinates are provided for those NAVAIDs that make up part of a route/airway or a holding pattern.
       LOW ENROUTE                   HIGH ENROUTE
depiction of latitude and logtitude, left side depicts low enroute example: lat/long coordinates are enclosed within the NAVAID box; right side depicts high enroute example: lat/long coordinates are shown with latitude coordinate breaking the bottom navid box line, and longtiude coordinates shown on the second, underneith latitude coordinates
 
NAVIGATION AND COMMUNICATION BOXES - EXAMPLES
LOW ENROUTE CHARTS HIGH ENROUTE CHARTS
VOR
R - Receive only 122.1R

Controlling FSS Name - ANDERSON


(T) - Service Volume


Receive & Transmit on 122.35
(T) - Service Volume
Latitude and Longitude

Controlling FSS Name - MACON
three ifr VOR navigation and communication box examples, from top to bottom; first example illustrates vor navaid box with a 122.1R shown above the box; second navaid box with terminal service volume, depicted with a (T) next to the NAVAID name; third example illustrates the NAVAID box a 122.35 shown above the box and (T) next to NAVAID name. VOR ifr vor navaid box example
VOR/DME
No Voice Communications
(Y) Mode DME


R - Receive only 122.1R
Controlling FSS Name - BUFFALO


Shadow NAVAID Box
FSS Associated with NAVAID
ifr low enroute example of VOR/DME navaid box with three examples given, going top to bottom. first example is of a vor/dme navaid box SAWMILL Navaid Name, 113.75 frequency, underlined, SWB NAVAID ident, 84 Channel (Y) mode and Morse Code; second example of Rockdale NAVAID with 122.1R above and atop the navaid box, navaid name: Rockdale; frequency 112.6, RKA NAVAID ident, 73 channel, morse code, latitude and longtitude coordinates, Buffalo appearing under the NAVAID as the FSS associated with the NAVAID; third example is a shadwow NAVAID box with 119.1 above the box, MIRABEL the NAVAID name, 116.7 freqency underlined, YMX navaid ident, 114 channel, Morse code and lat/long coordinates VOR/DME
Off Route (Grayed NAVAID Box and NAVAID)


Service Volume - L
DME in Y Mode



Shadow NAVAID Box
FSS Associated with NAVAID
ifr high enroute example of VOR/DME navaid box with three examples given, going top to bottom. first example: off route vor/dme navaid box, colored grey (box lines and all content within the box) ITHICA navaid name, 111.8 frequency, ITH NAVAID ident, (L) service volume, 55 channel frequency; second example: ELMIRA navaid name, 109.65 frequency, ULW NAVAID ident, (L) service volume, 33 channel (y) mode, lat/long coordinates; third example is a shadwow NAVAID box with 119.1 above the box, MIRABEL the NAVAID name, 116.7 freqency underlined, YMX navaid ident, 114 channel, and lat/long coordinates
TACAN

TACAN Channels are without voice but not underlined

Part Time NAVAID
ifr low enroute 2 examples of TACAN navaid boxes. second example depicted is of a tacan navaid box with a black star indicating part-time availablility TACAN
Off Route


Part Time NAVAID
(Grayed NAVAID Box and NAVAID)
Service Volume - L
ifr high enroute 2 examples of TACAN navaid boxes. second example depicted is of a tacan navaid box with a black star indicating part-time availablility
VORTAC
H - HIWAS Available






Shutdown status
ifr low enroute examples of VORTAC NAVAID communication boxes. From top to bottom, first vortac navaid box - fss frequencies 255.4 243.0 122.55 121.5 above the navaid box; NAVAID name Alexandria, black circle with white H in right hand corder indicating HIWAS available; frequency 116.1, underlined, AEX NAVAID ident, Morse code; NAVAID coordinates; FSS ID on bottom and outside of NAVAID box between brackets with FSS name - De Ridder. 2nd NAVAID box - Brunswick NAVAID name; 99 Channel with grey hashlines over the channel number indicating shut down status, NHZ NAVAID ident, Morse Code, 115.2 NAVAID frequency with grey hashlines over the channel number indicating shut down status, navaid location coordinates VORTAC
H - HIWAS Available




Off Route (Grayed NAVAID Box and NAVAID)
Service Volume - L
ifr high enroute examples of VORTAC NAVAID communication boxes. From top to bottom, first vortac navaid box - fss frequency 122.55 above the navaid box; NAVAID name Alexandria, black circle with white H in right hand corder indicating HIWAS available; frequency 116.1, underlined, AEX NAVAID ident; NAVAID coordinates; FSS ID on bottom and outside of NAVAID box between brackets with FSS name - De Ridder. 2nd NAVAID box - Handle NAVAID name; 114.3 NAVAID frequency, HLL NAVAID ident, (L) to indicate service volume, 90 Channel; whole second navaid box example in grey to indicate off route NAVAID
DME
DME Channel, Ident, Morse Code, VHF Frequency
standalone DME navigation box example: NAVAID name MOULTRIE, 25 Channel, MGR NAVAID ident, Morse Code, (108.8) frequency DME  
NDB
A - ASOS/AWOS Available



Shutdown status


ifr low enroute NDB navaid box examples. Two examples shown, from top to bottom; CAMILLA navaid name, 369 frequency underlined, CXU navaid ident, morse code, brown cirlce in the right corner with a white negative A indicating ASOS/AWOS available; second example of NDB navaid box: GENEVA navaid name, 224 frequency underlined with light brown hash marks across the frequency to indicate navaid is shutdown, GVA navaid ident and morse code. NDB
T - TWEB Available
ifr high enroute NDB navaid box example: FORT DAVIS navaid name, 529 frequency underlined, FDV navaid ident, navaid location coordiantes and brown cirlce in the right corner with a white negative T indicating TWEB is available
NDB/DME
No Voice Communications
(Y) Mode DME


T- TWEB Available
Shadow NAVAID Box
FSS Associated with NAVAID
ifr low enroute NDB/DME navaid box examples. Two examples shown, from top to bottom; CAPE NEWENHAM navaid name, 385 frequency underlined, EHM navaid ident, 18 channel (Y) mode DME, 108.15 DME frequency, ; second example of NDB/DME navaid box: ILIAMNA navaid name, 411 frequency underlined, ILI navaid ident, 91 channel DME, 114.4 DME frequency, and brown cirlce in the right corner with a white negative T indicating TWEB is available. NDB/DME
No Voice Communications
(Y) Mode DME


T-TWEB Available
Shadow NAVAID Box
FSS Associated with NAVAID
ifr high enroute NDB/DME navaid box examples. Two examples shown, from top to bottom; CAMILLA navaid name, 369 frequency underlined, CXU navaid ident, morse code, brown cirlce in the right corner with a white negative A indicating ASOS/AWOS available; second example of NDB navaid box: GENEVA navaid name, 224 frequency underlined with light brown hash marks across the frequency to indicate navaid is shutdown, GVA navaid ident and morse code.
Notes:   Notes: Morse Code is not shown on High NAVAID Boxes.

 

STAND ALONE FLIGHT SERVICES AND COMMUNICATION OUTLETS
  LOW CHARTS HIGH CHARTS
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)

Shadow NAVAID boxes indicate Flight Service Station (FSS) locations. Frequencies 122.2, 255.4 and emergency 121.5 and 243.0 are available at many FSSs and are not shown. All other frequencies are show above the box.

Certain FSSs provide Local Airport Advisory (LAA) on 123.6.

Frequencies transmit and receive except those followed by R and T:
R - Receive Only
T - Transmit Only












In Canada, shadow boxes indicate FSSs with standard group frequencies of 121.5, 126.7 and 243.0.
Stand Alone FSS
ifr low enroute chart example of Stand Alone Flight Service Station box, FSS requency 122.55 above the FSS frequency box, Dayton FSS Name, Day FSS Ident

Stand Alone FSS Associated with an Airport
ifr low altitude enroute chart exmaple of Stand Alone FSS associated with an airport: FSS frequencies appear above the box - 122.55, 122.3; MIAMI FSS followed by FSS ident, MIA

Part-time FSS
ifr low altitude chart example of a part-time FSS; FSS frequencies appear above the fss box - 123.6 122.4; FSS Name PALMER; PAQ FSS Ident; below the FSS box, FSS Voice Available 1700-0300 Zulu Monday-Friday, 1500-0630 Zulu Saturday, 1800-0400 Zulu Sunday, other times contact Kenai FSS

Stand Alone FSS within Canadian Airspace
ifr low enroute chart example of stand alone FSS within Canadian Airspace; 122.2 FSS requency appears above the box; Victor Harbour the FSS name; FSS available 1345-0630 Zulu appears below the box
Stand Alone FSS
ifr high enroute chart example of Stand Alone Flight Service Station box, Harbor FSS Name, HBR FSS ident

Stand Alone FSS Associated with an Airport
ifr high altitude enroute chart exmaple of Stand Alone FSS associated with an airport: FSS frequencies appear above the box - 122.55, 122.3; MIAMI FSS followed by FSS ident, MIA








Stand Alone FSS within Canadian Airspace
ifr high enroute chart example of stand alone FSS within Canadian Airspace; 122.2 FSS requency appears above the box; Victor Harbour the FSS name
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO)

Thin line NAVAID boxes without frequencies and controlling FSS name indicate no FSS frequencies available. Frequencies positioned above the thin line boxes are remoted to the NAVAID sites. Other frequencies at the controlling FSS named are available, however altitude and terrain may determine their reception.

In Canada, a "D" after the frequency indicates a dial-up remote communications outlet.
Stand Alone RCO
ifr low enroute chart stand alone RCO example: Leesburg RCO Name, 122.6 122.2 RCO frequencies
RCO Associated/Co-located with an Airport
ifr low enroute RCO associated with an airport example: Miami RCO Name, 122.65 122.2 122.1R RCO frequencies
Stand Alone RCO
ifr high enroute chart stand alone RCO example: Montgomery Co RCO Name, 122.4 RCO frequency
RCO Associated/Co-located with an Airport
ifr high enroute RCO associated with an airport example: Burlington RCO Name, 122.4 RCO frequency
STAND ALONE AWOS & ASOS

ifr enroute chart example of standalone AWOS and ASOS communication boxes and symbology. From left to right, BOONE AWOS 118.525 awos example; STAMPEDE PASS ASOS 135.275 asos example

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Airspace Information
AIRWAY/ROUTE TYPES
Low and High Enroute Airway Data: VHF/UHF Data is depicted in Black.
LF/MF Data is depicted in Brown.
RNAV Route data is depicted in Blue
                      Low Enroute Charts                      High Enroute Charts
VICTOR AIRWAYS victor route JET ROUTES jet route
LF/MF AIRWAY LF/MF Airway ATLANTIC ROUTE ifr high altitude atlantic route
UNCONTROLLED LF/MF AIRWAY ifr low altitude Uncontrolled LF airway BAHAMA ROUTE ifr high altitude bahama route
RNAV T ROUTE

GNSS Required
ifr low altitude RNAV T Route RNAV Q ROUTES ifr high altitude Q RNAV Route
RNAV TK HELICOPTER ROUTE

GNSS Required
ifr low altitude rnav tk route Alaska Q Routes require GNSS and radar surveillance. Within the CONUS, GNSS or DME/DME/IRU RNAV required, unless otherwise indicated. DME/DME/IRU aircraft require radar surveillance. Refer to Chart Supplement for DME information.
PREFERRED SINGLE DIRECTION VICTOR ROUTE ifr low altitude single direction victor route PREFERRED SINGLE DIRECTION JET ROUTES ifr high altitude single direction jet route
    PREFERRED SINGLE DIRECTION RNAV Q ROUTES ifr high altitude rnav q route
SINGLE DIRECTION ATS ROUTE ifr high altitude single direction ATS route
UNUSABLE ROUTE SEGMENT ifr low altitude unsuable route UNUSABLE ROUTE SEGMENT ifr high altitude unusable route
DIRECTOIN OF FLIGHT INDICATOR
CANADIAN ROUTES ONLY
ifr low altitude direction of flight arrow used on Canadian routes BY-PASS ROUTE

Jet Route Centerline by-passing a facility which is not part of that specific route.
ifr by-pass route
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (MTR)

MTRs 5NM or less both sides of centerline

MTRs greater than 5NM either or both sides of centerline



ifr low altitude military training routes less than 5 nautical miles
ifr low altitude military training routes greater than 5 nautical miles
   
Arrow indicates direction of route

See MTR tabulation for altitude range information

All IR and VR MTRs are shown except those VRs at or below 1500' AGL

CAUTION: Inset charts do not depict MTRs
Low and High Enroute Charts
ATS ROUTE ifr low and high altitude ats route SUBSTITUTE ROUTE

All relative and supporting data shown in brown.
ifr low and high altitude substitute route
See NOTAMs or appropriate publication for specific information.
OCEANIC ROUTE Oceanic Route

FIXES AND WAYPOINTS
                    FIXES   WAYPOINTS
    VHF/UHF       LF/MF REPORTING FUNCTION       RNAV
ifr vhf fix - triangle filled in black ifr lf fixes - triangle filled in brown Compulsory Position Reporting ifr RNAV waypoint - filled in blue
ifr vhf fixes - triangle outline colored black ifr lf fixes - triangle outline colored brown Non-Compulsory Position Reporting ifr rnav waypoint - rnav waypoint outlined in blue
ifr vhf off airway coordinates colored black ifr lf off airway coordinates colored brown Fix or Waypoint Coordinates

Fix Coordinates are shown for compulsory, offshore and holding fixes.

Waypoints Coordinates are shown when waypoint is not part of a RNAV route and when located on or beyond the boundary of the U.S. Continental Control (12 mile limit).
ifr rnav off airway coordinates colored blue
off set arrows along a VHF based airway, arrow colored black off set arrows along a LF based airway, arrow colored brown Off-set arrows indicate facility forming a fix

- Arrow points away from the VHF/UHF NAVAID
- Arrow points towards the LF/MF NAVAID
         N/A
off set arrows along a VHF based airway, hollowed arrow colored black off set arrows along a LF based airway, hollowed arrow colored brown Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Fix

Denotes DME fix (distance same as airway / route mileage)
         N/A
                VHF/UHF         RNAV
ifr dme fix with encircle mileage Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Fix

Denotes DME fix (encircled mileage shown when not otherwise obvious)
         N/A
ifr dme fix examples along a VHF based route Example:

First segment, 5NM; second segment 10NM; total mileage provided in encircled DME arrow.
         N/A
    VHF/UHF       LF/MF         RNAV
vhf based airway total mileage box , boxlines and mileage depicted in black lf based airway total mileage box , boxlines and mileage depicted in brown Total Mileages between Compulsory Reporting Points or NAVAIDs

Note: All mileages are in Nautical Miles
         N/A
vhf based airway segment mileage depicted in black lf based airway segment mileage depicted in black MILEAGE BETWEEN OTHER FIXES, NAVAIDs AND/OR MILEAGE BREAKDOWN rnav based route segment mileage depicted in blue
vhf based airway mileage breakdown of cnf depicted in black lf based airway mileage breakdown of cnf depicted in brown MILEAGE BREAKDOWN OR COMPUTER NAVIGATION FIX (CNF)
Five letter identifier in parentheses indicates CNF with no ATC function
         N/A
vhf based airway facility locator boat

lf based airway facility locator boat
vhf based airway facility locator boat with cross hatch used to indicate shutdown status of NAVAID

lf based airway facility locator boat with cross hatch used to indicate shutdown status of NAVAID
FACILITY LOCATOR BOATS


Crosshatch indicates Shutdown status of NAVAID
         N/A
ifr vhf based outbound radial          N/A RADIAL OUTBOUND FROM A VHF/UHF NAVAID

All Radials are magnetic.
         N/A
         N/A ifr lf based inbound bearing BEARING INBOUND TO AN LF/MF NAVAID

All Bearings are magnetic.
         N/A
         N/A          N/A MAGNETIC REFERENCE BEARING, outbound from a NAVAID or Fix
Note: Not shown on joint Victor/RNAV or Jet/RNAV Routes.
ifr rnav based outbound magnetic bearing

    VHF/UHF       LF/MF         RNAV
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of mea for a vhf route, 0000 depicted in black
ifr low enroute chart example of mea for a vhf route with directional arrows, 13000 feet MEA with a right directional arrow; 10000 feet mea with a left directional arrow; all depicted in black

HIGH CHARTS
ifr high enroute chart example of mea for a vhf route, MEA-29000 depicted in black
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of mea for a lf route, 0000 depicted in brown




HIGH CHARTS
ifr high enroute chart example of mea for a lf route, MEA-FL240 depicted in brown
MINIMUM ENROUTE ALTITUDE (MEA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.

Directional MEAs



MEAs are shown on IFR High Altitude Charts when MEA is other than 18,000'.
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of mea for a rnav route, 0000G depicted in blue


HIGH CHARTS

MEA for GNSS RNAV aircraft
ifr high enroute chart example of mea for a rnav route, 24000G depicted in blue
MEA for DME/DME/IRU RNAV aircraft
ifr high enroute chart example of mea for a rnav route, 24000D depicted in blue
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of MEA GAP, with MEA GAP depicted in black front over a VOR Route

HIGH CHARTS
ifr high enroute chart example of MEA GAP, with MEA GAP depicted in black front over a Jet Route
MINIMUM ENROUTE ALTITUDE (MEA) GAP
MEA is established when there is a gap in navigation signal coverage.
         N/A
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr low and high enroute chart example of MAA when used on VHF based route; MAAA-00000 depicted in black
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr low and high enroute chart example of MAA when used on LF based route; MAAA-00000 depicted in brown
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE (MAA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.

MAAs are shown on IFR High Altitude Charts when MAA is other than 45,000'.
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr low and high enroute chart example of MAA when used on RNAV based route; MAAA-00000 depicted in blue
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of MOCA when used on VHF based route; *0000 depicted in black
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of MOCA when used on LF based route; *0000 depicted in brown
MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (MOCA)
All Altitudes Are MSL Unless Otherwise Noted.
LOW CHARTS
ifr low enroute chart example of MOCA when used on RNAV based route; *0000 depicted in blue
LOW CHARTS
ifr enroute MTA symbology - example for VHF based route depicted in black
LOW CHARTS
ifr enroute MTA symbology - example for LF based route depicted in brown
MINIMUM TURNING ALTITUDE (MTA) AND MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE (MCA)

See Low Enroute Chart Example below for examples of both MTAs and MCAs.
LOW CHARTS
ifr enroute MTA symbology - example for RNAV based route depicted in blue
ifr enroute MRA symbology - example for VHF based route depicted in black ifr enroute MRA symbology - example for LF based route depicted in brown MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE (MRA)           N/A
ifr enroute altitude change symbology - example for VHF based route depicted in black ifr enroute altitude change symbology - example for LF based route depicted in brown ALTITUDE CHANGE
MEA, MOCA and/or MAA change at other than NAVAIDs
ifr enroute altitude change symbology - example for RNAV based route depicted in blue
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr enroute changeover point symbology - example for VHF based route depicted in black
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr enroute changeover point symbology - example for LF based route depicted in brown
CHANGEOVER POINT

Changeover Point giving mileage to NAVAIDs (Not shown at midpoint locations.)
          N/A
ifr enroute holding symbology - example for VHF based route depicted in grey ifr enroute holding symbology - example for LF based route depicted in grey HOLDING PATTERNS
RNAV Holding Pattern Magnetic Reference Bearing is determined by the isogonic value at the waypoint or fix.
ifr enroute holding symbology - example for RNAV based route depicted in blue
             ifr fixes Holding Pattern with maximum restriction airspeed 210K applies to altitudes 6000' to and including 14000'. 175K applied to all altitudes. Airspeed depicted is Indicated Airspeed (IAS)  

Enroute Chart Examples
Low Enroute Chart
ifr enroute low charting example with six items referenced.
Reference Number Description
Reference number 1, mca example from low enroute chart Multiple MCAs at a NAVAID

V21 and V257 - MCA at DBS of 8600' traveling North
V298 - MCA at DBS of 9800' traveling West
V343 - MCA at DBS of 8500' traveling North
V520 - MCA at DBS of 9000' traveling East
V520 - MCA at DBS of 10600' traveling West
Reference number 2, mca example from low enroute chart MCA and MRA at a Fix

MCA at SABAT on V298 of 11,100 traveling East.
MRA at SABAT of 10000.
Reference number 3, mca example from low enroute chart Example of MOCA and directional MEAs along a Victor Route

Traveling East from DBS, MEA 13,000' the first two segments, 15,000 along third segment.

Traveling West from QUIRT, MEA of 15,000' the first segment, MEA of 10,000 the second segment and MEA of 9,000 the third segment.

MOCA for DBS to SABAT and SABAT to LAMON segments of 8100
Reference number 4, mca example from low enroute chart MCA Example

MCA at OSITY on V330. MCA of 9500' traveling East on V330 from Idaho Falls (IDA) VOR-DME.
Reference number 5, mca example from low enroute chart MEA VHF and RNAV Example

MEA for aircraft utilizing VHF NAVAID of 15000'
MEA for aircraft utilizing RNAV of 13300'

MOCA of 13300'
Reference number 6, mca example from low enroute chart MCA and MTA Example at a NAVAID

MCA for aircraft traveling West along V520 to cross JAC at 15200'
MCA for aircraft traveling West along V330 to cross JAC at 13400'

MTA for aircraft crossing over and turning at JAC:

Aircraft traveling NE on V465 and turning to V330 on a W heading or turning to V520 on a W heading must turn at altitude of 16000' or higher

Aircraft traveling E on V520 and turning to V330 on a W heading must turn at altitude of 14200'

Aircraft traveling E on V330 and turning to V520 on a W heading must turn at altitude of 16000' or higher

Aircraft traveling NW on V328 and turning to V465 on a SW heading must turn at altitude of 15100' or higher.
High Enroute Chart
ifr enroute high chart example with three items referenced.
Reference Number Description
Reference number 1, high RNVA route with MEA for DME/DME/IRU RNAV aircraft High RNAV Route with MEA for DME/DME/IRU RNAV Aircraft

MEA of 24,000'
Reference number 2, high enroute directional jet route with time restriction Directional Jet Route with Time Restrictions

Jet Route 34 available between 1100 - 0300Z
Reference number 3, high enroute directional jet route with time restrictions, MAA and MEA Directional Jet Route with Time Restrictions, MAA and MEA

Jet Route 149 available between 1100 - 0300Z
MAA - 41,000'
MEA - 31,000'


AIRSPACE BOUNDARIES
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ) LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr adiz
ifr adiz adjoining
Adjoining ADIZ
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER (ARTCC)

ARTCC Remoted Sites with discrete VHF and UHF frequencies
LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr artcc
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE IDENTIFICATION DATA LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr air traffic service identification data
ifr air traffic service identification data
ALTIMETER SETTING CHANGE ifr altimeter setting change
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGIONS (FIR) LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr fir
   Adjoining FIR
CONTROL AREAS (CTA) LOW / HIGH CHARTS
ifr control areas
   Adjoining CTA
UPPER INFORMATION REGIONS (UIR)

UPPER CONTROL AREAS (UTA)

ifr uir ADDITIONAL CONTROL AREAS
LOW ALTITUDE

HIGH ALTITUDE
ifr additional control areas

 

AIRSPACE - U.S.
CLASS A

High Chart Only

Controlled Airspace
Open Area (White)

That airspace from 18,000' MSL to and including FL 600, including the airspace overflying the waters within 12 NM of the coast of the contiguous United States and Alaska and designated offshore areas, excluding Santa Barbara Island, Farallon Island, the airspace south of latitude 25° 04'00" N, the Alaska peninsula west of longitude 160°00'00" W, and the airspace less than 1,500' AGL.

That airspace from 18,000' MSL to and including FL 450, including Santa Barbara Island, Farallon Island, the Alaska peninsula west of longitude 160°00'00" W, and designated offshore areas.

 

CLASS B

Low Chart Only

Controlled Airspace
Screened Blue with a Solid Blue Outline

ifr low enroute chart example of Class B airspace and Mode C minus all charting information (simplified dipiction)That airspace from the surface to 10,000' MSL (unless otherwise designated) surrounding the nation's busiest airports. Each Class B airspace area is individually tailored and consists of a surface area and two or more layers.
Example:actual sample of an ifr low enroute chart depicting class B airspace and Mode C
Mode C Area

Low Chart Only

Controlled Airspace
A Solid Blue Outline

That airspace within 30 NM of the primary airports of Class B airspace and within 10 NM of designated airports. Mode-C transponder equipment is required. (See FAR 91.215)
Example:

See Chart example above.
CLASS C

Low Chart Only

Controlled
Airspace
Screened Blue with a Solid Blue Dashed Outline

simplified example of an ifr enroute low chart depiction of class C airspace
That airspace from the surface to 4,000' (unless otherwise designated) above the elevation of selected airports (charted in MSL). The normal radius of the outer limits of Class C airspace is 10NM. Class C airspace is also indicated by the letter C in a box following the airport name.
Example:
example of ifr low enroute chart of class c airspace
CLASS D

Low Chart Only

Controlled Airspace
Open Area (White)
ifr airspace outside us
That airspace from the surface to 2,500' unless otherwise designated) above the airport elevation (charted in MSL), surrounding those airports that have an operational control tower. Class D airspace is indicated by the letter D in a box following the airport name.
Example:
ifr airspace outside us
CLASS E

Low Chart Only

Controlled Airspace
Open Area (White)

That controlled airspace below 14,500' MSL which is not Class B, C or D.

Federal Airways from 1,200' AGL to but not including 18,000' MSL (unless otherwise specified).

Other designated control areas below 14,500' MSL.

Not Charted

That airspace from 14,500' MSL to but not including 18,000' MSL, including the airspace overflying the waters within 12 NM of the coast of the contiguous United States and Alaska and designated offshore areas, excluding the Alaska peninsula west of longitude 160°00'00" W, and the airspace less than 1,500' AGL.
 
CLASS G

High and Low Charts

Uncontrolled Airspace
Screened Brown Area
simplified example of ifr enroute low chart of class G airspace
Low Altitude

That portion of the airspace below 14,500' MSL that has not been designated as Class B, C, D or E Airspace.

High Altitude

That portion of the airspace from 18,000' MSL and above that has not been designated as Class A airspace.
Example:
sample ifr low enroute chart depicting Class G airspace

AIRSPACE - CANADIAN
CLASS B

Low Charts Only

Controlled Airspace
Screened Brown Checkered Area
sample ifr low enroute chart depicting  Canadian Class B airspace
Controlled airspace above 12,500' MSL
Example:
sample ifr low enroute chart depicting Canadian Class B airspace

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE - U.S.
Low and High Charts P - Prohibited Area











R - Restricted Area






W - Warning Area



See Airspace Tabulation on each chart for complete documentation information on:

Area Identification
Effective Altitude
Operating Times
Controlling Agency Voice Call

Example: P-56 -
Washington DC, Area A-1 Chart

ifr special use airspace example P-56
Example: P-40 and R-4009 -
Washington DC, Area A-1 Chart
ifr special use airspace example Prohibited area P-40/Restricted area R-4009
Example: R3601A -
ifr special use airspace example Restricted area R-3601A
Example: W-50
ifr special use airspace example Warning Area W-50

ifr special use airspace example Warning Area W-122 with exclusion
Low Charts Only
A - Alert Area












MOA - Military Operations Area



See Airspace Tabulation on each chart for complete documentation information on:

Area Identification
Effective Altitude
Operating Times
Controlling Agency Voice Call

Example:
ifr low charts alert area

ifr low charts military operations area

ifr low charts military operations area with exclusion
OFF ROUTE OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OROCA)
Low Charts Only OROCA is computed similarly to the Maximum Elevation Figure (MEF) found on Visual charts except that it provides an additional vertical buffer of 1,000 feet in designated non-mountainous areas and a 2,000 foot vertical buffer in designated mountainous areas within the United States.

Example:
12,500 feet
ifr low enroute ORACA example 12,500 feet
Example: Low L-13 Chart
ifr low enroute chart example depicting OROCA
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA)
Low and High Charts SFRA Symbology

SFRA symbology
Example: Low Chart (Washington Area Chart)
ifr low enroute chart example of SFRA

Example: High Chart (H-12)
ifr high enroute chart example of SFRA
SPECIAL FLIGHT RULES AREA (SFRA) - SFAR 50-2
Low Chart Only SFRA 50-2 Symbology
ifr low enroute SFRA symobology
Example: Low Chart L-8 (Grand Canyon)
ifr low enroute chart SFRA example

SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE - CANADA & CARIBBEAN
Low and High Charts Canada Only

CYA - Advisory Area








CYD - Danger Area





CYR - Restricted Area
ifr low and high enroute chart example of special use airspace in Canada - CYA advisory area

ifr low and high enroute chart example of special use airspace in Canada - CYD danger area

ifr low and high enroute chart example of special use airspace in Canada - CYR restricted area
  Caribbean Only
D - Danger Area

In the Caribbean, the first two letters represent the country code, i.e. (MY) Bahamas, (MU) Cuba
ifr low and high enroute chart example of special use airspace in Caribbean - (MY) D Danger area

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Navigational and Procedural Information
CRUISING ALTITUDES - LOW CHARTS - U.S. ONLY
IFR outside controlled airspace

IFR within controlled airspace as assigned by ATC

ALL courses are magnetic
ifr low enroute chart, crusing altitude diagram
VFR above 3000' AGL
unless otherwise authorized by ATC
   
CRUISING ALTITUDES - HIGH CHARTS - U.S. ONLY
IFR within controlled airspace as assigned by ATC

All courses are magnetic.
18,000' MSL to FL280

ifr high enroute crusing altitude depiction for FL180 to FL270
VFR or VFR On Top add 500'

No VFR flights within Class A Airspace above 3000' AGL unless otherwise authorized by ATC.
RVSM Levels FL290 to FL410

ifr high enroute crusing altitude depiction for FL290 to FL410No VFR or VFR On Top authorized above FL285 in RVSM airspace.
FL430 and above
ifr high enroute crusing altitude depiction for FL430 and above
ISOGONIC LINE AND VALUE LOW/HIGH CHARTS
ifr isogonic
Isogonic lines and values shall be based on the five year epoch.
TIME ZONE

All time is Coordinated Universal Time (UTC)
LOW/HIGH CHARTS

ifr time zone
During periods of Daylights Savings Time (DT), effective hours will be one hour earlier than shown. All states observe DT except Arizona and Hawaii.
ENLARGEMENT AREA LOW/HIGH CHARTS
ifr enlargement area
MATCH MARK LOW/HIGH CHARTS
ifr match mark
MORSE CODE morse code table (a to z and 1 to 0 morse code table)

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Culture
BOUNDARIES
International
ifr boundaries Date Line ifr date line
U.S./Russia Maritime Line ifr us russia maritime line    

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Hydrography
SHORELINES ifr shoreline    

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Topography
TERRAIN
Area Charts
ifr terrain    

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U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATION

The U.S. Terminal Procedure Publications (TPPs) includes the Instrument Approach Procedures (IAPs), Departure Procedures (DPs) charts, Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) charts, Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP) charts and Airport Diagrams. Also included are Takeoff Minimums, (Obstacle) Departure Procedures, Diverse Vector Area (RADAR Vectors), RADAR and Alternate Minimum textual procedures.

DOWNLOADABLE TERMINAL PROCEDURE CHARTING PRODUCTS EDITION (PDF)

For reference purposes the 1 February 2018 Edition of the Aeronautical Chart User's Guide is available in a PDF format for download. Due to the large file size we recommend that you use a broadband Internet connection to reduce the download time.

Aeronautical Chart User's Guide - Terminal Procedure Publications Only Edition (PDF, 3.2 MB)

The PDF version of the Chart User's Guide is the preferred version if you are planning to print out materials from the Chart User's Guide. Printer outputs of the online edition will vary depending upon browser type, viewing settings, printer driver settings and printer type.

EXPLANATION OF TPP TERMS AND SYMBOLS

The information and examples in this section are based primarily on the IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP). The publication legends list aeronautical symbols with a brief description of what each symbol depicts. This section will provide more detailed information of some of the symbols and how they are used on TPP charts.

FAA Terminal charts are prepared in accordance with specifications of the Interagency Air Committee (IAC) and their supporting technical groups for the purpose of standardization, which are approved by representatives of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and the Department of Defense (DoD).

The Terminal Procedure Publication is made up of the following charts:

INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE CHART SECTIONS

The IAPs (charts) are divided into various sections:

color coded sample instrument approach procedure

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MARGIN IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION

breakdown of margin information on an FAA instrument approach procedure

The margin identification at the top, bottom, and sides of the chart provides information about the airport location, procedure identification, and chart currency. The charts are organized by city first, then airport name and state, with the exception of military charts, which are organized by airport name. Going from the top of the chart, reading from left to right, and going down the chart, Margin Identification Information is organized in the following way.

Top Margin Information:

The city and state with which the airport is associated is located on both the top and bottom margins.

At the center of the top margin is an internal FAA numbering system. This Approach and Landing (AL) number is followed by the organization responsible for the procedure in parentheses, e.g., AL-18 (FAA), AL-227 (USAF).

margin information - top margin - sample FAA charting reference - AL-5326(FAA)

The procedure title is located on both the top and bottom margins. It is derived from the type of navigational facility that is providing the final approach course guidance. The title is abbreviated, e.g. ILS, RNAV, NDB, etc. For airports with parallel runways and simultaneous approach procedures, “L”, “R” or “C” follows the runway number to distinguish between left, right, and center runways.

The airport name is shown on both the top and bottom margins below the procedure title. The airport identifier is shown in parentheses following the airport name. Airports outside the contiguous United States will be shown with the FAA designated identifier followed by the ICAO location identifier.

The Date of Latest Revision is shown on the top margin above the procedure title. The Date of Latest Revision identifies the Julian date the chart was last revised for any reason. The first two digits indicate the year, the last three digits indicate the day of the year (001 to 365/6).

margin information - top margin - Julian Date

example of Juilian date - 15344 - YYDDD - year=2015 day=344
                                                                              Year|Day of Year

Side Margin Information:

The side margins show the volume identification, i.e. SW-3, followed by the current issue date and the next issue date, e.g. SW-3, 21 JUL 2016 to 15 SEP 2016.

Bottom Margin Information:

The FAA Procedure Amendment Number, located on the left bottom margin below the City, State, represents the most current amendment of a given procedure. The Procedure Amendment Effective Date represents the AIRAC cycle date on which the procedure amendment was incorporated into the chart. Updates to the amendment number and effective date represent procedural/criteria revisions to the charted procedure, e.g., course, fix, altitude, minima, etc.

Example: Original Procedure Date

example of chart original procedure date; Orig 10DEC15

Example: Amendment Procedure Date

example of chart amendment date; Amdt 1B 28MAY15

The coordinates for the airport reference point are located at the center of the bottom margin.

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BRIEFING STRIP INFORMATION

At the top of every TPP is the Briefing Strip which consists of three stacked strips of information above the planview. Information varies depending upon the type of procedure.
example briefing strip with each stacked strip identified. Going from top down: Approach Information Strip; Middle Briefing Strip and Communications Briefing Strip

Top Briefing Strip

The top briefing strip contains procedural information in three separate boxes, in the following sequence from left to right:
example of top breifing stip with each box identified. From left to right, Primary NAVAID info box, Approach Coarse Box, and Runway landing information box.

  • Box 1: Primary Procedure Navigation Information: The primary navigation type (VOR, LOC, NDB, RNAV, etc.) with its identifier and frequency/channel. If applicable, WAAS, the WAAS Channel Number, and the WAAS Reference Path indicator are shown stacked top to bottom. If the primary navigation type is LAAS, then the following information is shown, stacked top to bottom: LAAS, CH NNNN, RPI XXXX. If there is not a primary Navigation Box required, the first box is removed.

  • Box 2: Final Approach Course Information: The inbound Approach Course (APP CRS) is shown.

  • Box 3: Runway Landing Information: Stacked top to bottom, the runway landing distance (Rwy Ldg), the Touchdown Zone Elevation (TDZE) or Threshold Elevation (THRE), and the Airport Elevation (Apt Elev) are shown. Rwy Ldg may not reflect full runway length due to displaced thresholds and shorter declared distances.

Top Briefing Strip Examples:

Ground based NAVAID:
Top Briefing Strip Example: ILS or LOC Rwy 7 for Denver International Airport

RNAV-WAAS:
Top Briefing Strip Example: RNAV (GPS) Y RWY 16R for Denver International Airport

LAAS:
Top Briefing Strip Example: GLS RWY 4L for Newark Liberty International Airport

No Primary NAVAID box:
Top Briefing Strip Example: RNAV (GPS)Z RWY 17L for Denver International Airport

Circling Approach:
Top Briefing Strip Example: VOR/DME-A for Roanoke-Blacksburg Regional Airport/Woodrum Field

Sidestep Procedure:
Top Briefing Strip Example: ILS or LOC RWY 24R for Los Angeles International Airport

Back to Briefing Strip Information

Middle Briefing Strip

depiction of the middle briefing stip with each box and colored for identification; going from left to right: notes box, approach lighting system box and missed approach procedure box

The middle briefing strip may contain information in up to three separate boxes, when available, in the following sequence from left to right:

  • Box 1: Notes Box: contains procedure notes, Equipment/Requirements Notes box and Takeoff, Alternate, RADAR, WAAS, and/or Cold Weather indicators (details provided below under Notes Box).

  • Box 2: Approach Lighting System Box (when applicable): shows the approach lighting system name and charting icon. Multiple approach lighting systems may be shown for approaches that have straight-in minimums for parallel runways.

  • Box 3: Missed Approach Procedure Text Box: The full textual description of the missed approach procedure is provided here.

Notes Box

Procedure Equipment Requirements Notes Box

Users will begin to see Performance-Based Navigation (PBN) Requirements and ground-based Equipment Requirements prominently displayed in separate, standardized notes boxes. For procedures with PBN elements, the PBN box will contain the procedure's navigation specification(s); and, if required: specific sensors or infrastructure needed for the navigation solution; any additional or advanced functional requirements; the minimum Required Navigation Performance (RNP) value and any amplifying remarks. Items listed in this PBN box are REQUIRED. The separate Equipment Requirements Box will list ground-based equipment requirements.

   

On procedures with both PBN elements and ground-based equipment requirements, the PBN requirements box will be listed first.

   

Notes Symbols

Several different symbols may appear within the Notes Box:

Notes Box Symbology: Negative T in a down pointing triangle - indicates non-standard takeoff minimums and/or Departure Procedures exist Non-Standard Takeoff minimums and/or Departure Procedures exist. Refer to Takeoff Minimum, (Obstacle) Departure Procedures, and Diverse Vector Area (RADAR VECTORS) section of the TPP
negative A within a black colored triangle Non-standard IFR alternate minimums exist. Refer to IFR Alternate Airport Minimums section of the TPP
negative A within a black colored triangle with NA (Not Authorized) text to the right of the symbol Alternate minimums are not authorized due to unmonitored facility or absence of weather reporting service
negative W within a black colored square box WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System)
negative snowflake within a black square box with temperature text to the right of the symbol: -12 degrees Celsius/10 degrees fahrenheit Cold Temperature Restricted Airport

The negative w within a black square box symbol shown in the Notes section below any “A” or “T” Symbol indicates that outages of the WAAS (Wide Area Augmentation System) vertical guidance may occur daily at this location due to initial system limitations. WAAS NOTAMs for vertical outages are not provided for this approach. Use LNAV minima for flight planning at these locations, whether as a destination or alternate. For flight operations at these locations, when the WAAS avionics indicate that LNAV/VNAV or LPV service is available, then vertical guidance may be used to complete the approach using the displayed level of service. Should an outage occur during the procedure, reversion to LNAV minima may be required.

When negative snowflake within a black square box with temperature text to the right of the symbol: -12 degrees Celsius/10 degrees fahrenheit appears in the Notes section below all other symbols it indicates a cold temperature altitude correction is required at that airport when the reported temperature is at or below the published restricted temperature. Advise ATC when altitude correction is made in the intermediate and/or missed approach segment. Reporting corrections to ATC in final segment is not required. See Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) Graphic Notices General for complete list of published airports, temperature/s, segments and procedure information.

When “ASR”, “PAR” or “ASR/PAR” appear in the Note section immediately below the “T” and “A” symbols it indicates there are published Radar Instrument Approach Minimums. Where radar is approved for approach control service, it is used not only for radar approaches (Airport Surveillance Radar [ASR] and Precision Approach Radar [PAR]) but is also used to provide vectors in conjunction with published non-radar approaches based on radio NAVAIDs (ILS, VOR, NDB, TACAN). Radar vectors can provide course guidance and expedite traffic to the final approach course of any established IAP or to the traffic pattern for a visual approach.

Back to Briefing Strip Information

Bottom Briefing Strip (Communications Information)

The communications briefing strip contains communication information when available, in separate boxes, listed from left to right in the order that they would be used during arrival with the tower frequency box bolded:

generic example of the communications briefings strip of an instrument approach procedure

  • ATIS, AFIS (AK Only) or ASOS/AWOS frequencies (when available, ATIS or AFIS will be the only weather frequency/s published)
  • the Approach Control (APP CON) name and frequencies; when the approach service is provided by other than Approach Control, e.g. FSS (Radio), Tower, Center, the appropriate air traffic facility call name is provided.
  • the Control Tower (TWR) name and frequencies, to include Precision Radar Monitoring (PRM) and frequency
  • Ground Control (GND CON) frequencies
  • Clearance Delivery (CLNC DEL) frequencies; where a Control Tower does not exist or is part-time, a remoted CLNC DEL may be listed.
  • Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC)
  • Ground Communications Outlet (GCO) frequency
  • Common Traffic Advisory Frequency(CTAF), shown in parentheses when shares a frequency, e.g. UNICOM 122.8 (CTAF)
  • UNICOM or AUNICOM frequency

Note: Part-time operations will be annotated with a star. Check Chart Supplement for times of operation.

Back to Briefing Strip Information | Back to top

PLANVIEW

The planview of the IAP charts provides an overhead view of the entire instrument approach procedure.

The data on the planview is shown to scale, unless concentric rings, scale breaks or an inset have been used.

Approach Segments

The planview includes a graphical depiction of procedure entry through missed approach.

            example of a simple instrument approach procedure (an ILS approach) with each approach segment highlighted in different colors
Simple IAP Example

Legend

  Feeder Route Initial Approach Intermediate Approach Final Approach Course Missed Approach  

 

            example of a complex RNAV instrument approach procedure with radius to fix legs with each approach segment highlighted in different colors
Complex IAP Example with RF Legs

  • Feeder Routes (highlighted in blue - See Simple IAP Example above) may be used to provide a transition from the enroute structure to the IAF.
  • Initial Approach (highlighted in purple in examples above) is the segment between the initial approach fix (IAF) and the intermediate fix (IF) or the point where the aircraft is established on the intermediate course or final approach course.

  • Intermediate Approach (highlighted in yellow in examples above) is the segment between the intermediate fix or point and the final approach fix.

  • Final Approach Course (highlighted in red in the examples above) is the segment between the final approach fix or point and the runway, airport, or missed approach point.
  • Missed Approach (highlighted in green in the example above) begins at the MAP and continues until the designated fix or waypoint. Missed Approach Procedure Track is shown as a hash marked line in the planview. If the missed approach point falls outside of the area of the planview it will be shown in a separate box in the planview.

  • DME arcs or Radius-to-Fix legs (RF) are shown as smooth arcs from a designated start point to a designated terminus

                     example of a DME Arc - example taken from Martin State Airport MTN VOR/DME or TACAN Z RWY 15 approach
  • Visual Approach Track is shown on procedures that are authorized to proceed visually such as on procedures that terminate or have missed approaches to the airport.

                          example of a visual track on a traditional (NAVAID) instrument approach
    Traditional (NAVAID) Approach

                          example of a visual track on an RNAV instrument approach
    RNAV Approach

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NAVAIDS

NAVAIDs used on ground based charts will show the appropriate symbol accompanied by a data box that contains the facility name, frequency, identifier and Morse code. A NAVAID box with a heavy line indicates the primary NAVAID used for the approach.

NAVAIDs used on GPS based charts show the appropriate symbol identified with the name and identifier.

Example of Localizer NAVAID box as primary navaid and VORDME navaid box as secondary navaid
                                   Primary NAVAID - LOC
Secondary NAVAID - VORDME
example of the primary NAVAID on the profile view of an instrument procedures: NDB/DME NAVAID as primary example of a secondary NAVAID on the profile view of an instrument procedure: NDB/DME NAVAID as secondary
                   Primary NAVAID - NDB/DME                   Secondary NAVAID - NDB/DME
navaids depicted on the profile view: on the left side, a depiction of a NAVAID on an ILS procedure that makes up part of the approach; on the right side, a depiction of a NAVAID on RNAV that makes up part of the approach
                          NAVAID - ILS Approach                 NAVAID - RNAV Approach

Localizer Depiction

The localizer is depicted in the planview using the following symbol. The size of the charted localizer symbol does not serve as an indication of the service volume.

   

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Restrictive Airspeeds Along the Procedure Track

Restrictive airspeeds along the procedure track are shown paired with their respective fix/facility.

Type Description Example
Recommended Speed Recommended speed is depicted with no lines above or below it example of recommended speed - 180 Knots
Minimum Speed Minimum speed is depicted as a number with a line below it example of minimum speed - 120 knots with a line under the 120 knots
Maximum Speed Maximum speed is depicted as a number with a line above it example of maximum speed - 250 knots with a line above the 250 knots
Mandatory Speed Mandatory speed is depicted as a number with a line above and below it example of mandatory speed - 175 knots with a line above and below the 175 knots

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Restrictive Altitudes

Restrictive altitudes along the procedure track are shown paired with their respective fix/ facility. Minimum, Maximum, Mandatory and Recommended Altitudes are shown.

Type Description Example
Recommended Altitude Recommended altitude is depicted with no lines above or below it recommended altituded: 3000 feet
Minimum Altitude Minimum altitude is depicted as a number with a line below it minimum altituded: 2500 feet depicted with a line undernieth 2500
Maximum Altitude Maximum altitude is depicted as a number with a line above it maximum altitude: 4300 feet depicted with a line above 4300
Mandatory Altitude Mandatory altitude is depicted as a number with a line above it mandatory altitude: 5500 feet depicted with a line above and under 5500
Mandatory Block Altitude Mandatory block altitude is depicted with a minimum and a maximum altitude. manditory block altitude: 5000 feet as top altitude with a line above 5000 and 3000 feet below with a line underneith the 3000

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Holding Patterns and Procedure Turns

Holding Patterns are used for many reasons, including deteriorating weather or high traffic volume. Holding might also be required following a missed approach  Each holding pattern has a fix, a direction to hold from the fix, and an airway, bearing, course, radial, or route on which the aircraft is to hold.

examples of holding pattenrs: from left to right; Missed Approach Holding pattern; in lieu of procedure turn holding pattern and arrival holding pattern with a hold altitude a minimum  altitude of 8000 feet
        Missed Approach In Lieu of Procedure Turn Hold with Leg Length            Arrival

If a holding pattern has a non-standard speed restriction, it will be depicted by an icon with the limiting air speed shown inside the holding pattern symbol. These elements, along with the direction of the turns, define the holding pattern. If two types of holds are located at the same point, the procedural holding pattern will be shown in lieu of arrival or missed approach holding patterns.

Waypoints designated as a holding fix are shown as fly-by, without the circle around the symbol. However, in the event the holding fix/waypoint is also designated in some other part of the procedure (i.e., IAF ) with a fly-over function, then the holding fix/waypoint will be charted as a fly-over point.

A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed to perform a course reversal to establish the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final approach course. The procedure turn or hold-in-lieu-of procedure turn is a required maneuver when it is depicted on the approach chart. However, the procedure turn or the hold-in-lieu-of PT is not permitted when the symbol “NoPT” is depicted on the initial segment being flown, when a RADAR VECTOR to the final approach course is provided, or when conducting a timed approach from a holding fix. The procedure turn will be shown in the planview and in the profile of the chart.

example of Procedure Turn symbology

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Airports

The primary approach airport is shown to scale by a pattern of all the runways. Airports other than the primary approach airport may be shown with an airport pattern and name when in close proximity to the primary airport.

example of instrument procedure planview with a primary and other airports depicted

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Relief (Terrain Features)

Terrain is depicted in the planview portion of all IAPs at airports that meet the following criteria:

  • If the terrain within the planview exceeds 4,000 feet above the airport elevation, or
  • If the terrain within a 6.0 nautical mile radius of the Airport Reference Point (ARP) rises to at least 2,000 feet above the airport elevation.

When an airport meets either of the above criteria, terrain will be charted by use of contours, spot elevations, and gradient tints of brown on all IAPs for that airport. Contour layers will be shown in no more than five brown tints, with consecutively darker tints used for consecutively higher elevation contour layers.

instrument approach procedure profile with terrain and water depicted

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Hydrography (Water)

Water Depiction is depicted in gray, in the planview portion of IAPs. See above example. The following hydrographic features are shown:

  • Oceans
  • Significant rivers and streams
  • Significant lakes - If only one river or one small lake is involved, not located in the immediate airport vicinity, the hydrographic information requirement may be waived.

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instrument approach procedure example with International boundary depicted in the planviewInternational Boundary

When the planview includes a boundary of another country the International boundaries are shown by a dashed line. International boundaries are identified with country name within the country area.

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Obstacles (Man-made, Terrain and Vegetation)

Obstacles are shown as obstacle, man made symbol when they are man-made or vegetation or as a obstacle, terrain symbol when they are terrain. The highest obstacle, whether man-made or terrain is depicted with a bolder and larger symbol along with larger elevation font size. Any obstacle which penetrates a slope of 67:1 emanating from any point along the centerline of any runway shall be considered for charting within the area shown to scale. Obstacles specifically identified by the approving authority for charting shall be charted regardless of the 67:1 requirement.

Unverified obstacles shall be indicated by a doubtful accuracy symbol unverified obstacle symbol following the elevation value.

On non-precision approaches, obstacles should be considered when determining where to begin descent from the MDA.

            example of hightest point on an instrument approach where the highest point is a man made obstacle            example of highest point on an instrument approach where the highest point is terrain            example of an obstacle on an instrument approach where the height is unverified, inidcated with a plus sign on top of a minus sign
          Highest point - Obstacle           Highest point - Terrain      Unverified Obstacle - Obstacle

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example of special use airspace depicted on an instrument procedureSpecial Use Airspace (SUA)

SUAs consists of that airspace wherein activities must be confined because of their nature, or wherein limitations are imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of those activities, or both. These are prohibited areas, restricted areas, warning areas, Military Operations Areas (MOAs), and alert areas. SUA that falls within the area of coverage of the instrument approach procedure chart are shown only when designated by the approving authority.

Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ)

ADIZ is an area of airspace in which the identification, location, and control of aircraft is required in the interest of national security. When designated by the approving authority, ADIZ boundaries that fall within the area of coverage of the chart are shown. Example of ADIZ

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Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA)

MSAs are published for emergency use on IAP charts. MSAs appear in the planview of all IAPs except on approaches for which a Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) is used. The MSA is based on the primary NAVAID, waypoint, or airport reference point on which the IAP is predicated. The MSA depiction on the approach chart contains the identifier of the NAVAID/waypoint/airport used to determine the MSA altitudes. MSAs are expressed in feet above mean sea level and normally have a 25 NM radius; however, this radius may be expanded to 30 NM if necessary to encompass the airport landing surfaces. Ideally, a single sector altitude is established and depicted on the planview of approach charts; however, when necessary to obtain relief from obstructions, the area may be further sectored and as many as four MSAs established. When established, sectors may be no less than 90° in spread. MSAs provide 1,000 feet clearance over all obstructions but do not necessarily assure acceptable navigation signal coverage.

example of a single minimum safe altitude    example of a multiple minimum safe altitude     lengend depiction of minimum safe altitude as published in the Terminal Procedures Publication
      Single MSA               Multiple MSA's

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Terminal Arrival Areas (TAAs)

The TAA icons will be positioned in the planview relative to their relationship to the procedure. The icon will not have feeder routes, airways, or radar vectors depicted. The TAA provides a transition from the enroute structure to the terminal environment with little required pilot/air traffic control interface for aircraft equipped with Area Navigation (RNAV) systems. A standard TAA has three areas: straight-in, left base, and right base. The arc boundaries of the three areas of the TAA are published portions of the approach. A TAA provides minimum altitudes with standard obstacle clearance when operating within the TAA boundaries. TAAs are primarily used on RNAV approaches but may be used on an ILS approach when RNAV is the sole means for navigation to the IF; however, they are not normally used in areas of heavy concentration of air traffic.

example of an RNAV terminal arrival area

Non-standard TAAs may also be published; i.e., one base leg, no base legs, etc.

example of an RNAV non-standard terminal arrival area

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MISSED APPROACH INFORMATION

Missed approach information is shown in 3 locations on the chart:

  • The Middle Briefing Strip - The complete textual missed approach instructions are provided at the top of the approach chart in the middle pilot briefing strip.
  • The Planview - The missed approach track is drawn using a thin, hash marked line with a directional arrow. If the missed approach point is off the chart, the missed approach track shall extend to the chart border.

depicition of missed approach path utilized on the planview

  • The Profile Box - Missed Approach Icons will be depicted in the upper left or upper right of the profile box. The Missed Approach Icons are intended to provide quick, at a glance intuitive guidance to the pilot, to supplement the textual missed approach instructions in the briefing strip. Space permitting, all textual missed approach instructions will be graphically depicted in sequence. If space does not permit the depiction of all missed approach icons, only the first four icon boxes will be shown.
Example Missed Approach Icons Missed Approach Text
example of missed approach symbology - MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 13000 on RIL VOR/DME Radial 250 to to TEKGU INT/RIL 19 DME and on EKR VOR/DME Radial 179 to to WOKPA/EKR 44.2 DME and hold, continue climb-in-hold to 13000 MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 13000 on RIL VOR/DME R-250 to TEKGU INT/RIL 19 DME and on EKR VOR/DME R-179 to WOKPA/EKR 44.2 DME and hold, continue climb-in-hold to 13000
example of missed approach symbology - >MISSED APPROACH: Climbing left turn to 8000 via SVC  Radial 128, then reverse course to SVD VOR/DEM and hold. MISSED APPROACH: Climbing left turn to 8000 via SVC R-128, then reverse course to SVC VOR/DME and hold.
example of missed approach symbology - MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 9000 on track 112° to JETRY, cross JETRY at or above 6700, and on track 112° to PAKPE, right turn to WULKU, and on track 289° to JNC VOR/DME and hold. MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 9000 on track 112° to JETRY, cross JETRY at or above 6700, and on track 112° to PAKPE, right turn to WULKU, and on track 289° to JNC VOR/DME and hold.
example of missed approach symbology - MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 14000 via 174° course to HOMDU and via 160° track to DEVEC and 160° track to FTI VORTAC and hold. MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 14000 via 174° course to HOMDU and via 160° track to DEVEC and 160° track to FTI VORTAC and hold.
example of missed approach symbology - MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 5800, then climbing left turn to 10000 via heading 190° and SVC VOR/DME Radial 1932 to KUNRE INT/SVC VOR/DME 24.1 DME and hold. MISSED APPROACH: Climb to 5800, then climbing left turn to 10000 via heading 190° and SVC VOR/DME R-193 to KUNRE INT/SVC VOR/DME 24.1 DME and hold.

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PROFILE VIEW

A profile diagram of the instrument approach procedure is shown below the planview. The published descent profile and graphical depiction of the vertical path using those facilities, intersections, fixes, etc. identified in the procedure to the runway are shown. A profile view of the procedure track is shown. The approach track begins toward the top of the primary facility line, unless otherwise dictated by the procedure, and shall descend to where the final approach ends and the missed approach begins.

ILS or LOC Procedures Profile view vertical guidance example

 

RNAV and GLS Procedures with Vertical Guidance example

Precision Approaches

On precision approaches, the glideslope (GS) intercept altitude is illustrated by a zigzag line and an altitude. This is the minimum altitude for GS interception after completion of the procedure turn. Precision approach profiles also depict the GS angle of descent, threshold crossing height (TCH) and GS altitude at the outer marker (OM) or designated fix.

example of profile diagram of precision tradition (NAVAID) approach example of profile diagram of precision RNAV approach
     Traditional (NAVAID) Approach      RNAV Approach

Non-Precision Approaches

On nonprecision approaches, the final segment begins at the FAF which is identified with the Maltese cross symbol missed approach symbol, Maltese cross symbol. When no FAF is depicted, the final approach point is the point at which the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach course. Stepdown fixes may also be provided between the FAF and the airport for authorizing a lower minimum descent angle (MDA) and are depicted with the fix or facility name and a dashed line. On RNAV procedures without precision minima i.e., DAs, the approach track descends to the MDA or VDP point, thence horizontally to the missed approach point. On non-RNAV procedures without precision minima, the horizontal segment is shown from the VDP, when it exists, or the MDA when there is no VDP, and a vertical glide angle/TCH is provided.

example of profile diagram of non-precision tradition (NAVAID) approach example of profile diagram of non-precision RNAV approach
     Traditional (NAVAID) Approach      RNAV Approach

Visual Decent Point (VDP)

The Visual Descent Point (VDP), is shown by a bold letter “V” positioned above the procedure track and centered on the accompanying dashed line. (See example below.) The VDP is a defined point on the final approach course of a non-precision straight-in approach procedure from which normal descent from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be commenced.

RNAV and GLS Procedures with Vertical Guidance example

Visual Descent Angle (VDA) and Threshold Crossing Heights (TCH)

A VDA and TCH may be published on non-precision approaches. The VDA is strictly advisory and provides a means to establish a stabilized descent to the MDA. The presence of a VDA does not guarantee obstacle protection in the visual segment. If there are obstacles in the visual segment that could cause an aircraft to destabilize the approach between MDA and touchdown, the profile will not show a VDA and will instead show a note that states either "Descent Angle NA" or "Descent Angle NA-Obstacles".

  Visual Descent Angle (VDA) and Threshold Crossing Height (TCH) example  

Visual Flight Path

Instrument approach procedures that terminate or have missed approaches prior to the airport, and are authorized to proceed visual, shall be shown by the dashed line symbol from the missed approach point to the airport. The note "Fly visual" along with the bearing and distance shall be shown leadered to the visual flight path.

RNAV charts sometimes have visual flight for LNAV/VNAV minima which do not start at the missed approach point. An additional note indicating "LNAV/VNAV" will be placed above the note.

Chart Examples

sample instrument approach profile digram depicting a visual segment on an approach on a traditional NAVAID approach sample insturment approach profile diagram depicting a visual segement on an approach on a RNAV Approach
     Traditional (NAVAID) Approach      RNAV Approach

ILS Glide Slope and RNAV Glidepath

A note providing the glide slope (GS) or glidepath (GP) angle and the threshold crossing height (TCH), are positioned in the lower half of the profile box

  • GS will be shown on all ILS procedures.
  • GP will be shown GLS procedures and all RNAV procedures with a published decision altitude

Threshold Crossing Height (TCH) has been traditionally used in “precision” approaches as the height of the glide slope above threshold. With publication of LNAV/VNAV minimums and RNAV descent angles, including graphically depicted descent profiles, TCH also applies to the height of the “descent angle,” or glidepath, at the threshold.

34:1 Surface Clear Stipple Symbol

On RNAV approach charts, a small shaded arrowhead shaped symbol from the end of the VDA to the runway indicates that the 34:1 Obstacle Clearance Surface (OCS) for the visual segments is clear of obstacles. (See example in VDP Section above.)

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LANDING MINIMUMS

The landing minimums section is positioned directly below the profile. This section gives the pilot the lowest altitude and visibility requirements for the approach. There are two types of landing minimums: Straight-in landing or Circling. Straight-in landing minimums are the MDA and visibility, or DH and visibility, required for a straight-in landing on a specified runway. Circling minimums are the MDA and visibility required for the circle-to-land maneuver.

The minimums for straight-in and circling are located under each aircraft category. When there is not a division line between minimums for each category, the minimums apply to two or more categories.

sample depiction of landing minima table as taken from the TPP legend

A second category of straight-in minimums called "sidestep" may be depicted where parallel runways exist.

sample minima given from the LAX ILS Rwy 24R approach with side-step minima provided on the bottom line for runway 24L

The terms used to describe the minimum approach altitudes differ between precision and nonprecision approaches. Precision approaches use DH, which is referenced to the height above threshold elevation (HAT). Nonprecision approaches use MDA, referenced to “feet MSL.” The MDA is also referenced to HAT for straight-in approaches, or height above airport (HAA) for circling approaches. The figures listed parenthetically are for military operations and are not used in civil aviation.

The visibility values are shown after the DA/DH or MDA. They are provided in statue miles or runway visual range (RVR). RVR is reported in hundreds of feet. If the visibility is in statute miles, there is an altitude number, hyphen, whole or fractional number, e.g. 530-1. This indicates 530 feet MSL and 1 statute mile of visibility. The RVR value is separated from the minimum altitude with a slash, e.g., 1540/24. This indicates 1540 feet MSL and RVR of 2400 feet.

When a reference mark (*, **, #, etc.) is shown on a line of minimums, the qualifying footnote is provided in the notes section.

example of use of reference marks

Circling Minimums

There was a change to the TERPS criteria in 2012 that affects circling area dimension by expanding the areas to provide improved obstacle protection. To indicate that the new criteria had been applied to a given procedure, a black square with a negative c is placed on the circling line of minimums. The new circling tables and explanatory information is located in the Legend of the TPP.

The approaches using standard circling approach areas can be identified by the absence of the black square with a negative c symbol on the circling line of minima.

example of minimum, with circling minima given at the bottom with no negative c depicted therefor requiring the application of standard circling approach maneuvering radius table
Apply Standard Circling Approach Maneuvering Radius Table
example of minimums, cicrling only, with the negative c depicted indicating the need to apply the expanded circling approach maneuvering airspace radius table
Apply Expanded Circling Approach Maneuvering Airspace Radius Table

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examaple of airport diagram (Orlando, FL - Orldando Executive Airport KORL)AIRPORT SKETCH

The airport sketch is a depiction of the airport with emphasis on runway pattern and related information, positioned in either the lower left or lower right corner of the chart to aid pilot recognition of the airport from the air and to provide some information to aid on ground navigation of the airport. The runways are drawn to scale and oriented to true north. Runway dimensions (length and width) are shown for all active runways.

Runway(s) are depicted based on what type and construction of the runway.

Hard Surface Other Than Hard Surface Metal Surface Closed Runway
first line of symbology utilized in depicting the contruction of runways. reading from right to left: hard surface; other than hard surface; metal surface; closed runway
Under Construction Stopways, Taxiways, Parking Areas, Water Runways Displaced Threshold Closed Taxiway
second line of symbology utilized in depicting the contruction of runways. reading from right to left: under construction; stopways, taxiways, parking areas, water runways; displaced threshold and closed taxiway symbology

Taxiways and aprons are shaded gray. Other runway features that may be shown are runway numbers, runway dimensions, runway slope, arresting gear, and displaced threshold.

Other information concerning lighting, final approach bearings, airport beacon, obstacles, control tower, NAVAIDs, helipads may also be shown.

Airport Elevation and Touchdown Zone/Threshold Elevation

The airport elevation is shown enclosed within a box in the upper left corner of the sketch box and the touchdown zone (TDZE) or threshold elevation (THRE) is shown in the upper right corner of the sketch box. The airport elevation is the highest point of an airport’s usable runways measured in feet from mean sea level. The touchdown zone is the highest elevation in the first 3,000 feet of the landing surface while the threshold elevation is the elevation of the runway threshold. The chart will show either the TDZE or THRE, except for circling only approaches which will show neither.

Runway Declared Distance Information

Runway declared distance information when available will be indicated by obstacle, terrain symbol and is shown to the right of the airport elevation in the sketch box. Declared distances for a runway represent the maximum distances available and suitable for meeting takeoff and landing distance performance requirements.

Runway Lights

Notes regarding approach lighting systems are shown at the bottom of the sketch box. Runway lights (HIRL) (MIRL) (LIRL) (TDZL)(TDZ/CL) shall be indicated by a note, e.g. HIRL Rwy 9-27.

Other approach lighting is shown on the airport sketch as a symbol on the side of the runway where they are actually located. Symbols that are shown in negative indicate pilot-controlled lighting.

Runway centerline lights (CL) are installed on some precision approach runways to facilitate landing under adverse visibility conditions. They are located along the runway centerline and are spaced at 50 foot intervals. Runways with CL are shown in a negative dot pattern through the middle of the solid runway as illustrated in the airport sketch to right.

example of airport sketch KDEN, with the time/distance table at the bottom highlighted Runway centerline lights will be indicated by a note only when paired with TDZL, e.g., TDZ/CL Rwys 6 and 24.

Time/Distance Table

When applicable, a Time/Distance Table is provided below the airport sketch. The table provides the distance and time that is required from the final approach fix to the missed approach point for select groundspeeds.

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AIRPORT DIAGRAMS

Airport Diagrams are specifically designed to assist in the movement of ground traffic at locations with complex runway/taxiway configurations. Airport Diagrams are not intended for use in approach and landing or departure operations. An airport diagram assists pilots in identifying their location on the airport, thus reducing requests for “progressive taxi instructions” from controllers.

sample diagram of airport legend depicting the symbology utilized to depict information specific to airport runways on FAA airport diagrams

Airport Diagram Features:

  1. Runways
    1. complete with magnetic headings (including magnetic variation and epoch year) and identifiers.
    2. Runways under construction shall also be shown.
    3. Runway dimensions, displaced thresholds, runway end elevations.
    4. Runway surface composition
    5. Weight bearing capacity (landing gear configuration or Pavement Classification Number)
    6. Land and Hold Short (LAHSO) lines, ILS hold lines, Localizer/Glide Slope Critical Areas.
    7. Arresting Gear. To include Engineered Materials Arresting System (EMAS).
  2. Taxiways, with identifiers. Taxiways under construction shall also be shown.
  3. Hot Spot locations.
  4. Parking areas, run-up pads, alert areas, landing pads, “Non-Movement” areas (where pilot is NOT under air traffic control), ramps, aprons and hold pads.
  5. Turnarounds, blast pads, stopways, overruns, and clearways (include dimensions when known)
  6. Large tanks, including fueling area.
  7. Control towers (include tower height).
  8. Airport beacon.
  9. Helicopter pads.
  10. Radar reflectors.
  11. Highest obstruction within diagram boundary.
  12. Any building that pilot can taxi to. Other buildings to include terminal/administration and Base operations, fire station, NWS, AFSS, FAA, FSDO, ANG, USCG, FBO.
  13. Comm Frequencies.
    Note: Star when used in the Comm Frequencies indicates part-time status. Check Chart Supplement for times of operation.

sample depiction of an airport diagram. diagram is a generic diagram illustrating various charting symbols utilized to depict information on an FAA diagram

Runway Construction

Runway construction is depicted as follows:

Hard Surface Other Than Hard Surface Metal Surface Closed Runway Closed Taxiway Under Construction Stopways, Taxiways, Parking Areas, Water Runways Displaced Threshold
a mutli symbol diagram depicting the different depictions utilized to illustrate the construction of an airport diagram. Running from left to right, Hard Surface depiction; surfaces other than hard surface depiction; metal surface depiction; closed runway depiction; under construction depiction; stopways, taxiways, parking areas and water runway depiction; and displaced threshold depiction.

Hot Spots

Hot Spots are a runway safety related problem area or intersection on an airport. Typically it is a complex or confusing taxiway/taxiway or taxiway/runway intersection. A confusing condition may be compounded by a miscommunication between a controller and a pilot, and may cause an aircraft separation standard to be compromised. The area may have a history of surface incidents or the potential for surface incidents.

Hot Spots are indicated on the Airport Diagram with a brown open circle or polygon leadered to a Hot Spot number, e.g., HS 1. The number corresponds to a listing and description on the Hot Spot page in the front the TPP. More information and location of Hot Spots can be found at http://www.faa.gov/airports/runway_safety/hotspots/hotspots_list/.

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DEPARTURE PROCEDURES (DPs)

Departure Procedures (DPs) are designed specifically to assist pilots in avoiding obstacles during the climb to the minimum enroute altitude, and/or airports that have civil IFR takeoff minimums other than standard. There are two types of DPs: Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODPs), printed either textually or graphically and Standard Instrument Departures (SIDs), always printed graphically. SIDs are primarily designed for system enhancement and to reduce pilot/controller workload, and require ATC clearance. ODPs provide obstruction clearance via the least onerous route from the terminal area and may be flown without ATC clearance. All DPs provide the pilot with a safe departure from the airport and transition to the enroute structure.

Generally, DP charts are depicted “not to scale” due to the great distances involved on some procedures or route segments. A “to scale” portrayal may be used if readability is assured.

The DP will show the departure routing, including transitions to the appropriate enroute structure. All routes, turns, altitudes, NAVAIDs, facilities forming intersections and fixes, and those facilities terminating the departure route are shown. A textual description of the departure procedure is also provided. For RNAV DPs, the transition text consists of the transition name and associated computer code. On non-RNAV DPs, the transition text will also include the description of all turns, altitudes, radials, bearings and facilities/fixes needed to guide the user from the common departure point to the terminating facility fix.

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STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL (STARs) CHARTS

STARs are pre-planned Instrument Flight Rule (IFR) air traffic control arrival procedures for pilot use in graphic and/or textual form. STARs depict prescribed routes to transition the aircraft from the enroute structure to a fix in the terminal area from which an instrument approach can be conducted. STARs reduce pilot/controller workload and air-ground communications, minimizing error potential in delivery and receipt of clearances.

STAR charts generally shall be depicted ‘not to scale’ due to the great distances involved on many procedures and route segments. A ‘to scale’ depiction may be used only if readability is assured.

The STAR will show the arrival routing, including transitions from the appropriate enroute structure. All routes, turns, altitudes, NAVAIDs, facilities forming intersections and fixes, and those facilities/fixes terminating or beginning the arrival route shall be shown in the graphic depiction. A textual description of the arrival procedure is also provided. For RNAV STARs, transition text will consist of the transition name and associated computer code. For non-RNAV STARs, the transition text will also include a description of all turns, altitudes, radials, bearings and facilities/fixes needed to guide the user from the entry point to the common facility/fix.

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CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE (CVFP) CHARTS

CVFPs are charted visual approaches established for environmental/noise considerations, and/or when necessary for the safety and efficiency of air traffic operations. The approach charts depict prominent landmarks, courses, and recommended altitudes to specific runways. CVFPs are designed to be used primarily for turbojet aircraft. CVFPs are not instrument approaches and do not have missed approach segments.

CVFPs are named for the primary landmark and the specific runway for which the procedure is developed, such as: RIVER VISUAL RWY 18, STADIUM VISUAL RWY 24. The CVFP charts are divided into planview and notes sections separated by a bar scale in 1 NM increments. The planview of the CVFP includes the portrayal of visual approach procedures information, such as landmarks, NAVAIDs, visual track, hydrography, special use airspace and cultural features, as applicable.

CVFPs originate at or near, and are designed around, prominent visual landmarks and typically do not extend beyond 15 flight path miles from the landing runway. Visual tracks start at a geographical point or landmark where the procedure must be flown visually to the airport. The visual track is indicated by a dashed line. Visual tracks may include the track value, distance and minimum or recommended altitudes.

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Download complete version of TPP Legends and General Information

U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES PUBLICATION SYMBOLS
GENERAL INFORMATION

Symbols shown are for the Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP) which includes Standard Terminal Arrival (STARs) Charts, Departure Procedures (DPs), Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) and Airport Diagrams.

tpp legend

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Approach Lighting System

APRROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM

Approach Lighting System legend - page 1

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Approach Lighting System legend - page 2

 

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AIRPORT DIAGRAM/AIRPORT SKETCH

Airport Diagram/Aiport Sketch legend

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Instrument Approach Planview Legend - Page 1

Instrument Approach Procedures (Charts) Planview Symbols - page 1

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Instrument Approach Planview Legend - Page 2

Approach Lighting System legend - page 2

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Instrument Approach Procedures Profile View

Instrument Approach Procedures - Profile View

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Cold Temperature Correction (Snowflake Icon)

Cold Weather Correction Table

List of Cold Weather Restricted Airports


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REFERENCES

There are several references available from the FAA to aid Pilot and other interest parties to learn more about FAA Charts and other aspects of aviation.

Publication FAA Publication ID
Book Cover - Aeronautical Information Manaul Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM)  
Book Cover - FAA Airplane Flying Handbook Airplane Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-3A
Book Cover - FAA Helicopter Flying Handbook Helicopter Flying Handbook FAA-H-8083-21A
Book Cover - Instrument Flight Procedures Handbook Instrument Procedures Handbook FAA-H-8083-16A
Book Cover - FAA Instrument Flying Handbook Instrument Flying Handbook (PDF) FAA-H-8083-15B
Book Cover - Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge (PDF) FAA-H-8083-25B
Book Cover - Remote Pilot - Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Study Guide Remote Pilot - Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Study Guide (PDF) FAA-G-8082-22

 

A
  • AAS - Airport Advisory Service
  • AAUP - Attention All Users Page
  • ADF - Automatic Direction Finder
  • ADIZ - Air Defense Identification Zone
  • ADS - Automatic Dependent Surveillance
  • ADS-B - Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast
  • Advsry - Advisory
  • AFIS - Automatic Flight Information Service
  • AFS - Air Force Station
  • AGL - Above Ground Level
  • AIM - Aeronautical Information Manual
  • AIRAC - Aeronautical Information Regulation And Control
  • APP - Approach
  • Apt - Airport
  • APV - Approaches with Vertical Guidance
  • ARP - Airport Reference Point
  • ARTCC - Air Route Traffic Control Center
  • ASDA - Accelerate-Stop Distance Available
  • ASDA-X - Airport Surface Detection Equipment-Model X
  • ASOS - Automated Surface Observing Station
  • ASR - Airport Surveillance Radar
  • ATC - Air Traffic Control
  • ATIS - Automatic Terminal Information Service
  • ATS - Air Traffic Service
  • AUNICOM - Automated Aeronautical Advisory Station
  • AWOS - Automated Weather Observing Station

B
  • Baro-VNAV - Barometric Vertical Navigation
  • BS - Broadcast Station

C
  • CAC - Caribbean Aeronautical Chart
  • CAT - Category
  • CFR - Code of Federal Regulations
  • CLNC DEL - Clearance Delivery
  • CT - Control Tower
  • CTAF - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
  • CH - Channel
  • COP - Changeover Point
  • CPDLC - Controller Pilot Data Link Communication
  • CRS - Course
  • CTAF - Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
  • CVFP - Charted Visual Flight Procedure

D
  • DA - Decision Altitude
  • DA - Density Altitude
  • D-ATIS - Digital Automatic Terminal Information Service
  • DH - Decision Height
  • DoD - Department of Defense
  • DME - Distance Measuring Equipment
  • DP - Departure Procedure
  • DT - Daylight Savings Time
  • DVA - Diverse Vector Area

E
  • E - East
  • EFAS - Enroute Flight Advisory Service
  • EFB - Electronic Flight Bag
  • Elev - Elevation

F
  • FAA - Federal Aviation Administration
  • FAF - Final Approach Fix
  • FAP - Final Approach Point
  • FAR - Federal Aviation Regulation
  • FIR - Flight Information Region
  • FL - Flight Level
  • FLIP - Flight Information Publication
  • FMS - Flight Management System
  • FREQ - Frequency
  • FRZ - Flight Restricted Zone
  • FSDO - Flight Standards District Office
  • FSS - Flight Service Station

G
  • GBAS - Ground-Based Augmentation System
  • GCO - Ground Communications Outlet
  • GLS - GBAS Landing System
  • GND - Ground
  • GNSS - Global Navigation Satellite System
  • GPS - Global Positioning System
  • GS - Ground Speed

H
  • HAA - Height Above Airport
  • HAR - High Altitude Redesign
  • HAT - Height Above Touchdown
  • HF - High Frequency
  • HIWAS - Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service

I
  • IACC - Interagency Air Cartographic Committee
  • IAF - Initial Approach Fix
  • IAP - Instrument Approach Procedure
  • ICAO - International Civil Aviation Authority
  • IDT - Identifier
  • IF - Intermediate Fix
  • IFR - Instrument Flight Rules
  • ILS - Instrument Landing System
  • IMC - Instrument Meteorological Conditions
  • INS - Inertial Navigation System
  • IR - Instrument Route
  • IRU - Inertial Reference Unit

K
  • KIAS - Knots

L
  • LAAS - Local Area Augmentation System
  • LAHSO - Land and Hold Short
  • LAA - Local Airport Advisory
  • LAAS - Local Area Augmentation System
  • LDA - Localizer-type Directional Aid
  • LDA - Landing Distance Available
  • Ldg - Landing
  • LF - Low Frequency
  • LNAV - Lateral Navigation
  • LOC - Localizer
  • LOM - Locator Outer Marker
  • LPV - Localizer Performance with Vertical Guidance
  • LRRS - Long Range Radar Station
  • LTP - Landing Threshold Point

M
  • MAA - Maximum Authorized Altitude
  • MAP - Missed Approach Point
  • MCA - Minimum Crossing Altitude
  • MDA - Minimum Descent Altitude
  • MDH - Minimum Descent Height
  • MEA - Minimum Enroute Altitude
  • MEF - Maximum Elevation Figure
  • MF - Medium Frequency
  • MIA - Minimum IFR Altitude
  • MOA - Military Operations Areas
  • MOCA - Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude
  • MORA - Minimum Off-Route Altitude
  • MRA - Minimum Reception Altitude
  • MSA - Minimum Safe Altitude
  • MSL - Mean Sea Level
  • MTA - Minimum Turning Altitude
  • MTR - Military Training Route
  • MVA - Minimum Vector Altitude

N
  • N - North
  • N/A - Not Applicable
  • NA - Not Authorized
  • NAS - National Airspace System
  • NAVAID - Navigational Aid (Ground based)
  • NDB - Non-Directional Radiobeacon
  • NextGen - Next Generation Air Transportation System
  • NFDC - National Flight Data Center
  • NFPO - National Flight Procedures Office
  • NM - Nautical Mile
  • NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  • NO A/G - No Air-to-Ground Communication
  • NOTAM - Notice to Airman
  • NoPT - No Procedure Turn
  • NPA - Non-Precision Approach
  • NTAP - Notices to Airman Publication
  • NWS - National Weather Service

O
  • OAT - Outside Air Temperature
  • OBS - Omni Bearing Selector
  • OCA - Ocean Control Area
  • OCS - Obstacle Clearance Surface
  • ODP - Obstacle Departure Procedure
  • OROCA - Off Route Obstruction Clearance Altitude

P
  • PA - Precision Approach
  • PAR - Precision Approach Radar
  • PRM - Precision Runway Monitor
  • PT - Procedure Turn
  • PTP - Point-to-Point
  • Pvt - Private

R
  • R - Radial
  • R - Receive
  • R - Restricted Area (Special Use Airspace)
  • RCO - Remote Communications Outlet
  • RF - Radius-to-Fix
  • RNAV - Area Navigation
  • RNP - Required Navigation Performance
  • RNP AR - Required Navigation Performance Authorization Required
  • ROC - Required Obstacle Clearance
  • RVSM - Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
  • Rwy - Runway

S
  • S - South
  • SAAAR - Special Aircraft and Aircrew Authorization Required
  • SAAR - Special Aircraft and Aircrew Requirements
  • SATNAV - Satellite Navigation
  • SDF - Simplified Directional Facility
  • SER - Start End of Runway
  • SFAR - Special Flight Rules Area
  • SFRA - Special Flight Rules Area
  • SFC - Surface
  • SIAPS - Standard Instrument Approach Procedures
  • SID - Standard Instrument Departure
  • SM - Statute Mile
  • SMAR - Special Military Activity Routes
  • SMGCS - Surface Movement Guidance and Control System
  • SOIA - Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches
  • SSV - Standard Service Volume
  • STAR - Standard Terminal Arrival Procedure
  • SUA - Special Use Airspace
  • SVFR - Special Visual Flight Rules

T
  • TA - Travel Advisory
  • TAA - Terminal Arrival Area
  • TAC - Terminal Area Chart
  • TACAN - Tactical Air Navigation
  • TAS - True Air Speed
  • TCH - Threshold Crossing Height
  • TDZ - Touchdown Zone
  • TDZE - Touchdown Zone Elevation
  • TERPS - U.S. Standard for Terminal Instrument Procedures
  • TFR - Temporary Flight Restriction
  • THRE - Threshold Elevation
  • TIBS - Telephone Information Briefing Service
  • TIS-B - Traffic Information Service - Broadcast
  • TOC - Top of Climb
  • TOD - Top of Descent
  • TODA - Takeoff Distance Available
  • TOGA - Takeoff/Go Around
  • TORA - Takeoff Runway Available
  • TPP - Terminal Procedures Publication
  • TRSA - Terminal Radar Service Area
  • TWEB - Transcribed Weather Broadcast
  • TWR - Tower

U
  • UC - Under Construction
  • UHF - Ultra High Frequency
  • UIR - Upper Information Region
  • UNICOM - Universal Communications
  • U.S. - United States
  • USAF - United States Air Force
  • UTA - Upper Control Area

V
  • VCOA - Visual Climb Over Airport / Airfield
  • VDA - Visual Descent Angle
  • VDP - Visual Decent Point
  • VFR - Visual Flight Rules
  • VGSI - Visual Glide Slope Indicator
  • VHF - Very High Frequency
  • VMC - Visual Meteorological Conditions
  • VNAV - Vertical Navigation
  • VOR - VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range
  • VORTAC - VHF Omnidirectional Radio Range/Tactical Air Navigation
  • VPA - Vertical Path Angle
  • VR - Visual Route

W
  • W - Warning Area (Special Use Airspace)
  • W - West
  • WAAS - Wide-Area Augmentation System
  • WAC - World Aeronautical Chart
  • WP - Waypoint
  • WX CAM - Weather Camera (Alaska)