Dangerous Goods Regulations for Air Transportation
Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR)
Chapter I of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations prescribes requirements on air operators, aircraft, airman, airspace, and many other components of the aviation system. As described here, many operator requirements in 14 CFR interface with dangerous goods safety issues. SMS (14 CFR Part 5), airport operations (14 CFR Part 139), and cargo compartment standards (14 CFR Part 25), are other Parts of 14 CFR that also overlap with areas of dangerous goods safety.
Perhaps, most significant, 14 CFR requirements require all U.S. air carriers to have training, processes, and procedures for recognizing and refusing noncompliant dangerous goods shipments.
Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR)
The Hazardous Materials Regulations (HMR) are the minimum requirements for the safe transportation of dangerous goods in commerce. They describe how dangerous goods are classified, communicated, handled, and stowed.
The HMR is published in Subchapter C of Title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations (49 CFR, parts 171-180). DOT's Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) writes the HMR. PHMSA's oCFR tool provides an interactive web-based version of the HMR and Hazardous Materials Table.
FAA is responsible for compliance with the HMR for air transportation. Aircraft operators are also subject to FAA requirements in the 14 CFR.
International Civil Aviation Organization Technical Instructions (ICAO TI)
The broad principles governing the international transport of dangerous goods by air are contained in Annex 18 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation – The Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air. These Technical Instructions amplify the basic provisions of Annex 18 and contain all the detailed instructions necessary for the safe international transport of dangerous goods by air.
The International Civil Aviation Organization Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air (ICAO TI) provides regulatory information for international transportation of dangerous goods by air. The ICAO TI is permitted for use in the United States as alternative to HMR; However, certain US requirements found in Table A-1 of the ICAO TI and Title 49 Part 171, Subpart C, still apply.
International Air Transport Association Dangerous Goods Regulations (IATA DGR)
IATA is an industry organization's guidance document that provides information for the international transportation of dangerous goods by air. This is not an official regulatory document. The regulations contained within the IATA DGR are not permitted to be less restrictive than the law.