Use of Liquid Water Equivalent System to Determine Holdover Times or Check Times for Anti-Icing Fluids
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) standard for a Liquid Water Equivalent System (LWES). This AC applies to anyone proposing to design, procure, construct, install, activate, or maintain an LWES. An LWES is an automated weather measurement system that determines the Liquid Water Equivalent (LWE) rate in conditions of frozen or freezing precipitation. The LWE rate is used by the system with the appropriate endurance time (ET) regression equations and regression coefficients specified in an FAA-approved current database at http://184.108.40.206/RegressionInformation.html to determine the holdover time (HOT) or check time (CT) for an aircraft’s applied anti-icing fluid (Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE) Types I, II, III, and IV). Thus, the LWES incorporates a Holdover Time Determination System (HOTDS) or Check Time Determination System (CTDS). The HOT is used to determine how long a fluid would provide protection assuming that the current conditions do not change. The CT is used to determine the fluid’s current protection capability, while incorporating varying weather conditions.
Transition to Unfamiliar Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) is intended to help plan the transition to any unfamiliar fixed-wing airplanes, including type-certificated (TC) and/or experimental airplanes. It provides information and guidance to owners and pilots of experimental, simple, complex, high-performance, and/or unfamiliar airplanes. It also provides information to flight instructors who teach in these airplanes. This information and guidance contains recommendations for training experience for pilots of experimental airplanes in a variety of groupings based on performance and handling characteristics. This AC does not address the testing of newly built experimental airplanes. The current edition of AC 90-89, Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook, provides information on such testing. However, if a pilot is planning to participate in a flight test program in an unfamiliar and/or experimental airplane, this AC should be used to develop the skills and knowledge necessary to safely accomplish the test program utilizing the guidance found in AC 90-89.
Air Cargo Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides operators with recommended procedures for managing cargo operations. Developing and using these comprehensive procedures is key to establishing a safe and efficient cargo operation. The AC provides guidance for aircraft cargo loading systems (CLS), restraints, special cargo, and unit load devices (ULD)This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of complying with applicable regulations to manage cargo operations.
Programs for Training of Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Personnel
This AC provides information on courses and reference materials for training of Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) personnel. This revision replaces Appendix 1 with an Addendum of Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) Training Facilities, which the FAA will update on a quarterly basis. It also removes the one minute time requirement for donning of Personal Protective Equipment and the Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus.
Certification and Operation of Aviation Maintenance Technician Schools
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance to assist persons in obtaining and maintaining Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) certification of an Aviation Maintenance Technician School (AMTS). This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes acceptable means, but not the only means, to meet the requirements of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR). However, if you choose to follow this AC as the means to meet the provisions of 14 CFR part 147, then you must follow the AC in its entirety. New content in AC 147-3B will provide part 147 AMTS applicants and currently certificated AMTSs with information concerning comprehensive detail of AMTS operations to include Distance Learning and Operations Specifications (OpSpec) informational guidance for industry.
Voluntary Industry Distributor Accreditation Program
This advisory circular (AC) describes a system for accrediting civil aircraft parts distributors based on voluntary industry oversight. The AC also provides information for developing accreditation programs. We, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), strongly endorse participation in such a program to help certificated persons establish the eligibility of parts and products for installation on U.S. type-certificated (TC) products. We have revised this AC to meet current changes in regulatory requirements and industry practices since original publication. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. Any mandatory language used in this AC applies only to those who choose to voluntarily participate in this program; those who do choose to participate must follow the processes and procedures described in this AC in their entirety to be considered compliant with this program.
Airworthiness Approval for ADS-B In Systems and Applications
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the initial and follow-on installations of Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) In systems supporting ground and airborne traffic applications. These applications are defined in TSO-C195b, Avionics Supporting Automatic Dependent Surveillance – Broadcast (ADS-B) Aircraft Surveillance Applications (ASA).
Conversion Process for Pilot Certificates in Accordance with the Implementation Procedures for Licensing as part of the Bilateral Aviation Safety Agreement Between the Federal Aviation Administration and Transport Canada Civil Aviation Authority for Pilot Licensing
This advisory circular (AC) provides the procedure and eligibility requirements for a Transport Canada Civil Aviation Authority (TCCA) pilot license holder converting to an Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) pilot certificate and an outline of the procedures and eligiblity requirments for an FAA pilot certificate holder converting to a TCCA pilot license. Pilots who are licensed by TCCA and comply with the special conditions listed within the Implementation Procedures for Licensing (IPL) are considered to be eligible for the associated FAA pilot certificate for airplane and/or rotorcraft–helicopter at the private, commercial, and airline transport pilot (ATP) levels including associated instrument ratings and applicable pilot type ratings. The procedure describes the FAA’s conditions for a TCCA pilot license conversion, the application process including required information, and considerations for exercising the privileges of an FAA pilot certificate. Adherence to this AC provides an acceptable method by which the FAA may convert a TCCA pilot license to an FAA pilot certificate.
Use of Portable Electronic Devices Aboard Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) provides aircraft owners, operators, and the public with information and guidance for assistance in compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, § 91.21. Section 91.21 was established because of the potential for portable electronic devices (PED) to interfere with aircraft navigation or communication systems. It prohibits the operation of PEDs not installed aboard U.S.-registered civil aircraft while operating under instrument flight rules (IFR). This rule permits the use of specified PEDs and other devices that the operator of the aircraft has determined will not interfere with the safe operation of that aircraft. The recommendations contained herein are one means, but not the only means, of complying with § 91.21 requirements pertaining to the operation of PEDs.
Instrument Flight Procedure Validation (IFPV) of Satellite-based Instrument Flight Procedures (IFPs)
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for conducting instrument flight procedure validation (IFPV) of satellite-based performance-based navigation (PBN) instrument flight procedures (IFP) for both fixed-wing and helicopter aircraft. It also addresses validation of helicopter wide area augmentation system (WAAS) special IFP. This AC supplements and does not change the requirements of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 8200.1, United States Standard Flight Inspection Manual. Ground validation, preflight validation (including simulator evaluation and obstacle assessment), and flight validation are described in this document.
The primary audience for this AC is non-FAA service providers performing IFPV. The secondary audience is Flight Standards Service Aviation Safety Inspectors and Air Traffic Organization (ATO) personnel within the FAA who are directly associated with the FAA IFPV process and/or charged with the responsibility to authorize and provide oversight of non-FAA IFPV service providers.
Amateur-Built Aircraft and Ultralight Flight Testing Handbook
This advisory circular (AC) provides suggestions and safety related recommendations primarily to assist amateur and ultralight builders in developing individualized aircraft flight-test plans. It also provides guidance for experimental light sport aircraft flight testing after modifications to the aircraft. It provides recommendations and suggestions you can combine with other sources on test flying, such as the aircraft plan/kit manufacturer’s flight testing instructions and other flight testing data. This will help you develop a detailed flight-test plan, tailored for your aircraft and resources.
This AC attempts to make you aware that test flying an aircraft is a critical undertaking, which you should approach with thorough planning, skill, and common sense. The flight-test plan is the heart of all professional flight testing. The plan should account for every hour spent in the flight-test phase and you should adhere to it with the same respect for the unknown that all successful test pilots share. The time allotted for each phase of a personalized flight-test plan may vary, and each phase may have more events or checks than suggested in this AC, but your goals, should be the same. You should add flight-test operational and performance data to the aircraft’s flight manual so you can reference the data prior to each flight.
Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternate Flight Deck Security Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) calls attention to RTCA Document (RTCA/DO-329) Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures, as guidance to achieve effective protection of the flight deck as required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 § 121.584(1)(a).
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with pertinent regulatory requirements.
Upset Prevention and Recovery Training
This advisory circular (AC) describes the recommended training for airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT). The goal of this AC is to provide recommended practices and guidance for academic and flight simulation training device (FSTD) training for pilots to prevent developing upset conditions and ensure correct recovery responses to upsets. The AC was created from recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations. This AC provides guidance to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers implementing the regulatory requirements of §§ 121.419, 121.423, 121.424, and 121.427. Although this AC is directed to air carriers to implement part 121 regulations, the FAA encourages all airplane operators, pilot schools, and training centers to implement UPRT and to use this guidance, as applicable to the type of airplane in which training is conducted.
Although a stall is by definition an upset, stall prevention and recovery training is contained in the current edition of AC 120-109, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training.
Development and Submission of Special Instrument Procedures to the FAA
This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance for the submission and approval of special instrument flight procedures developed by non-FAA service providers and submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for review and approval. Special instrument procedures are those procedures developed for specific users and are not processed under Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR), Part 97. Occasionally, the word "must" or similar language is used within this AC where the desired action is deemed critical. The use of such language is not intended to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by 14 CFR.
Helicopter Air Ambulance Operations
Helicopters provide a means of transporting people in urgent need of medical assistance. These operations are unique due to the urgent nature of the flight. Each year thousands of patients are transported by helicopter while being attended by medical personnel trained to respond to their needs. Helicopter air ambulances (HAA) are equipped with medical monitoring and support systems to ensure proper care en route.
The HAA industry continues to expand. In response to the dynamic growth of this industry, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has issued this advisory circular (AC) to provide information and guidelines to assist existing HAA operators, other Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 135 operators considering becoming an HAA operator and those considering new-startup HAA operations. To address an increase in fatal HAA accidents, the FAA has implemented new operational procedures and additional equipment requirements for HAA operations. The FAA, HAA operators and medical community all play vital roles in applying these changes to ensure safety. Implementing a safety culture will benefit all aspects of HAA operations.
Part 135 subpart L addresses safety improvements for commercial helicopter operations through requirements for equipment, pilot testing, alternate airports and increased weather minimums for all General Aviation (GA) helicopter operations. Many of these requirements also address National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) safety recommendations directed at improving HAA safety.
Flightcrew Member Line Operational Simulations: Line-Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation
This advisory circular (AC) presents guidelines for the design and implementation of Line Operational Simulations (LOS), including Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), Special Purpose Operational Training (SPOT), and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) for flightcrew members. This document does not interpret the regulations; interpretations are issued only under established agency guidelines. As operators develop LOSs, they should develop an interdependent relationship between their human factors, Crew Resource Management (CRM), flight operations, and safety initiatives, because they are linked to a common safety goal.
This AC describes a means by which LOS scenarios are developed, scripted, tested, evaluated, and (in the case of LOFT and LOE) approved by the Administrator for use in an operator’s training program. The methodology set forth also achieves the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) mandate to ensure that each certificate holder provides the highest level of safety in the public interest, while meeting the agency’s responsibility to reduce or eliminate the possibility or recurrence of accidents in air transportation.
Engine Overtorque Test, Calibration Test, Endurance Test, and Teardown Inspection for Turbine Engine Certification (§§ 33.84, 33.85, 33.87, 33.93)
a. This advisory circular (AC) provides a method of compliance for the test requirements of Title 14, of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 33.84 (engine overtorque test) when the applicant chooses to run that test as part of the endurance test of § 33.87. It also provides information and guidance on the test requirements of § 33.85 (calibration test), § 33.87 (endurance test), and § 33.93 (teardown inspection).
b. This AC applies to part 33 type certification endurance testing of all classes of turbine engines.
Experimental Airworthiness Certification of Certain Former Military Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance concerning special airworthiness certification in the experimental category of certain former military aircraft under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 21, Certification Procedures for Products and Parts, §§ 21.191(a), (c), (d), (e); and 21.193.
Instrument Flight Procedure Service Provider Authorization Guidance for RequiredNavigation Performance Authorization Required Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for Instrument Flight Procedure(IFP) developers, hereinafter referred to as "IFP Service Providers," to become authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to develop Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 97 Required Navigation Performance IFPs with Authorization Required (RNP AR).
Safety Management Systems for Aviation Service Providers
This advisory circular (AC) provides information for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers that are required to implement Safety Management Systems (SMS) based on 14 CFR part 5. Specifically, this document provides a description of regulatory requirements, guidance, and methods of developing and implementing an SMS. This AC may also be used by other aviation service providers interested in voluntarily developing an SMS based on the requirements in part 5.
An SMS is an organization-wide comprehensive and preventive approach to managing safety. An SMS includes a safety policy, formal methods for identifying hazards and mitigating risk, and promotion of a positive safety culture. An SMS also provides assurance of the overall safety performance of your organization. An SMS is intended to be designed and developed by your own people and should be integrated into your existing operations and business decisionmaking processes. The SMS will assist your organization’s leadership, management teams, and employees in making effective and informed safety decisions.
Part 5 specifies a basic set of processes integral to an effective SMS but does not specify particular methods for implementing these processes. In other words, the regulation defines "what" must be accomplished, not "how" it must be accomplished. This AC provides additional guidance on how the SMS may be developed to achieve the safety performance objectives outlined by your organization. As is demonstrated by this AC, there is no one-size-fits-all method for complying with the requirements of part 5. This design is intentional, in that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expects each air carrier to develop an SMS that works for its unique operation. Thus, this AC provides guidance regarding designing and implementing acceptable methods of compliance with the requirements of part 5. These methods, however, are not the only means of compliance.
Air Carrier Pilot Remedial Training and Tracking Program
This advisory circular (AC) presents guidelines for developing and implementing remedial training and tracking of pilots. These guidelines apply to certificate holders conducting operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121. This AC presents one way, but not necessarily the only way, that certificate holders may comply with the remedial training and tracking requirements prescribed in 14 CFR part 121, § 121.415. This AC may also provide valuable information to certificate holders in developing and implementing remedial training and tracking of other crewmembers and aircraft dispatchers.
Airworthiness Approval of Satellite Voice (SATVOICE) Equipment Supporting Air Traffic Service (ATS) Communication
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on airworthiness approval for designers, manufacturers, and installers of Satellite Voice (SATVOICE) equipment supporting air traffic service (ATS). In this AC, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) recommends one way to gain airworthiness approval for SATVOICE equipment. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to gain airworthiness approval for your SATVOICE equipment. However, if you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
This advisory circular (AC) updates information regarding the hazards and risks of in-flight fires on transport category aircraft. The information includes recommended crewmember procedures and training for combating in-flight fires. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued Safety Recommendations A-11-87 through A-11-91 during the investigation of United Parcel Service (UPS) flight 6 accident on September 3, 2010 in the United Arab Emirates. The flightcrew encountered a "Fire Main Deck" master warning about 22 minutes into the flight; they declared an emergency and initiated a return to Dubai International Airport (DXB). The aircraft crashed inside an Emirate army post 9 miles from DXB, and both flightcrew members were fatally injured. NTSB findings revealed safety issues related to the training and use of oxygen mask; communicating with oxygen masks donned; and oxygen mask stowage and the smoke, fire, or fumes checklists. This revision to AC 120-80 is in response to NTSB recommendations A-11-88 through A-11-90.
Laser Airworthiness Installation Guidance
In this advisory circular (AC), we recommend one way to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness approval for the installation of aircraft?mounted, nonrequired, invisible spectrum laser equipment such as infrared surveillance laser and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) equipment. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with the requirements found in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1301, 23.1309, 23.1529, 23.1581, 25.1301, 25.1309, 25.1529, 25.1581, 27.1301, 27.1309, 27.1529, 27.1581, 29.1301, 29.1309, 29.1529, and 29.1581 for the laser equipment aspects only. If you use the means described in this AC, you must follow it in its entirety.
Dynamic Gust Loads
This advisory circular (AC) describes acceptable means for showing compliance with the requirements of Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 25.341, Gust and turbulence loads. Section 25.341 specifies the discrete gust and continuous turbulence dynamic load conditions that apply to the airplane and engines.