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General Operating and Flight Rules

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91-90 AFS-110 Part 91 Approved Inspection Programs

This advisory circular (AC) prescribes the procedures to develop and submit aircraft owner- and operator-specific inspection programs in accordance with an inspection program selected under the provisions of Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, § 91.409(f)(4), and satisfies the requirements of § 91.409(g) for review and approval by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to develop an Approved Inspection Program (AIP). However, if you use the means described in the AC, you must follow it in all important respects.

91-91 AFS-300 Maintaining Public Aircraft

This AC is intended to provide guidance for developing maintenance and inspection programs for aircraft operated as public aircraft. The recommendations in this AC were developed using industry best practices, depending on the aircraft being operated. The AC describes methods for maintaining aircraft in order to maximize both a safety and economic benefit.

91-70B AFS-400 Oceanic and Remote Continental Airspace Operations This advisory circular (AC) contains general information and detailed guidance for operators planning flights in oceanic and remote continental airspace, including authorizations needed for operations outside the continental United States (CONUS). This includes Performance-based Navigation (PBN) and Special Areas of Operation (SAO). The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) revised this AC to focus on the evolving operations in airspace where air traffic control (ATC) provides procedural control. This AC is laid out in a chronological format, beginning with foundational information, followed by information on the training, authorizations, and equipment required to operate most efficiently in this airspace, and finishing with flight planning, flight execution, and contingency operations guidance. Our goal is to provide you with a template to guide you through planning and executing flight operations through oceanic and remote continental airspace. Information related to international operations in specific locales has been removed from this AC due to its transitory nature. Some region-specific information has been incorporated into the North Atlantic (NAT), West Atlantic Route System (WATRS)/Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean, and Pacific (PAC) Resource Guides (NAT PDF, West Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico PDF, and PAC PDF). These online resource guides, along with the FAA Notices to Airmen (NOTAM) Domestic/International, provide the most current information available to pilots, aircraft dispatchers and other operational control personnel preparing for oceanic and international operations.We have also included hyperlinks to many documents, available free or for purchase. The dynamics of oceanic and remote continental airspace operations are such that they are constantly evolving, and it is incumbent on you, the operators, to closely monitor any changes. 10-04-2016
91-89 AFS-800 Mitsubishi MU-2B Training Program

This AC provides guidance and standardized methods for meeting the training requirements outlined in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) Part 91 Subpart N, Mitsubishi MU-2B Series Special Training, Experience, and Operating Requirements, for Mitsubishi MU-2B aircraft. The new part 91 subpart N mandates training, experience, and operating requirements to ensure the highest level of operational safety for the Mitsubishi MU-2B series airplanes. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of complying with the requirement that all training and checking for the MU-2B aircraft must be conducted in accordance with a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-approved training program. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation; however, it may be used by training providers to meet the requirements of part 91 subpart N. Training providers may also use this AC as a reference for developing their own MU-2B training programs to submit for FAA approval pursuant to the requirements of part 91 subpart N.

91-88 AFS-800 Electronics News Gathering Operations This advisory circular (AC) provides recommendations to ensure the safety of electronic news gathering (ENG) operations. Like all advisory material, this AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It is issued to provide guidelines. This AC was developed in consideration of ENG industry standards and recommended practices. 06-28-2016
91-87 AFS-800 Ejection Seat Training Program This advisory circular (AC) describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of developing an ejection seat training program (ESTP). However, if you use the means described in the AC, you must follow it in all important respects. This AC is to be used as a guide when developing an ESTP as required by certain aircraft’s operating limitations. This AC may also be used as a tool to evaluate the content of an ESTP. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. 02-26-2016
91-37B AFS-800 Truth in Leasing This advisory circular (AC) provides information and guidance for lessees and conditional buyers of U.S.-registered aircraft. While truth-in-leasing requirements are required by regulation for aircraft weighing more than 12,500 pounds, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) prepared this AC to ensure any person who is seeking to lease an aircraft understands the meaning of operational control and does not enter into an agreement where operational control is not clearly maintained by the appropriate party. 02-10-2016
91-57A AFS-800 Model Aircraft Operating Standards - Including Change 1

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance to persons operating UnmannedAircraft (UA) for hobby or recreation purposes meeting the statutory definition of "model aircraft" contained in Section 336 of Public Law 112-95, the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. This AC describes means by which model aircraft may be operated safely in the National Airspace System (NAS). Nothing in this AC changes the requirement to comply with the statute or any applicable regulations.

91-63D AJV-1 Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) and Flight Limitations This advisory circular (AC): (1) explains and defines the different flight limitations and Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFRs); (2) describes conditions under which the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) may establish a flight limitation or TFR area; (3) explains which FAA offices are authorized to issue flight limitations or TFRs; (4) lists the agencies/offices from which the FAA will accept requests to establish a flight limitation or TFR area; and (5) provides an appendix for each type of flight limitation or restriction. 12-09-2015
91-74B AFS-800 Pilot Guide: Flight In Icing Conditions

This advisory circular (AC) contains updated and additional information for the pilots of airplanes under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91, 121, 125, and 135. The purpose of this AC is to provide pilots with a convenient reference guide on the principal factors related to flight in icing conditions and the location of additional information in related publications. As a result of these updates and consolidating of information, AC 91-74A, Pilot Guide: Flight in Icing Conditions, dated December 31, 2007, and AC 91-51A, Effect of Icing on Aircraft Control and Airplane Deice and Anti-Ice Systems, dated July 19, 1996, are cancelled. This AC does not authorize deviations from established company procedures or regulatory requirements.

91-79A AFS-800 Mitigating the Risks of a Runway Overrun Upon Landing (Include Chg 1)

This advisory circular (AC) provides ways for pilots and airplane operators to identify, understand, and mitigate risks associated with runway overruns during the landing phase of flight. It also provides operators with detailed information that operators may use to develop company standard operating procedures (SOP) to mitigate those risks.

91-73B AFS-200 Parts 91 and 135 Single Pilot, Flight School Procedures During Taxi Operations

This advisory circular (AC) provides guidelines for the development and implementation of standard operating procedures (SOP) for conducting safe aircraft operations during taxiing to avoid causing a runway incursion. In accordance with the current edition of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Order 7050.1, Runway Safety Program, the definition of a runway incursion is, any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle, or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and takeoff of aircraft. This AC is intended for use by persons operating aircraft single pilot under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) parts 91 and 135, and flight schools. The FAA recommends that these guidelines become an integral part of all SOPs, Flight Operations Manuals (FOM), and formal flight training programs.

91-82A ACE-100 Fatigue Management Programs for In-Service Issues

a.This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance on developing and implementing a Fatigue Management Program (FMP) to address in-service issues for metallic fatigue critical structure.  An applicant may develop an FMP as one method to address an unsafe condition when the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) determines an airplane type design has a demonstrated risk of catastrophic failure due to fatigue.  In such cases, the FMP should incorporate damage-tolerance based inspections or a part replacement/modification program to mitigate the demonstrated risk.  The FMP should also incorporate other fatigue critical structure inspections to address the broader risk posed by potential cracking of these structures in the airplane.  The FAA will mandate the FMP by Airworthiness Directive (AD).  The FAA may also approve the FMP as an alternative method of compliance (AMOC) to an AD.

b.This AC includes guidance relevant to developing FMPs for other purposes such as life extensions, type certification requirements, or non-mandatory maintenance programs.  This guidance supplements other ACs that contain guidance for developing damage-tolerance based inspection programs to look proactively for potential cracks.  Such guidance includes AC 91?56B, Continuing Structural Integrity Program for Airplanes, AC 25.571?1D, Damage Tolerance and Fatigue Evaluation of Structure, and AC 23?13A, Fatigue, Fail-Safe, and Damage-Tolerance Evaluation of Metallic Structure for Normal, Utility, Acrobatic, and Commuter Category Airplanes.  Applicants should use product specific guidance in conjunction with this AC.

c.   This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation.  It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for maintaining the continued operational safety for airplane type designs that have a demonstrated risk.  In this AC, the FAA uses terms such as “must” or “require” only in the sense of ensuring applicability of a particular method of compliance when using a specific acceptable method of compliance described herein.

91-86 AEE-100 Guidance on Carrying Noise Certification Documents On Board Aircraft Operating Outside the United States

a. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is amending its operating rules to require U.S. operators flying outside the United States to carry aircraft noise certification information on board the aircraft.

b. This Advisory Circular (AC) provides guidance to affected U.S. operators that operate aircraft outside the United States with aircraft that were never required to be noise certified. If you have such an aircraft, this AC outlines the noise certification requirement dates so you can confirm that your aircraft indeed pre-dates the requirements and should be considered acceptable. We use the term “grandfathered” for these aircraft. We strongly recommend operators of such aircraft to use the FAA form in Appendix 1 that includes a grandfather clause.

91-76A AAM-630 Hazard Associated with Sublimation of Solid Carbon Dioxide (Dry Ice) Aboard Aircraft This AC discusses the potential hazard associated with the sublimation of dry ice aboard aircraft. Precautionary measures and simple rules of thumb are indicated in order to preclude environmentally hazardous conditions affecting crews and passengers aboard aircraft. 05-22-2009
91-84 AFS-800 Fractional Ownership Programs This advisory circular (AC) provides backgroung information, and describes fractional ownership programs and te application process for obtaining management specifications (MSpecs) to operate under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14CFR) part 91 subpart k (part 91K) 03-31-2009
91-80 AJR-1 Air Traffic Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) Hotlines

This advisory circular provides guidance to customers of the National Airspace System (NAS) in regard to the use of and participation on ATCSCC hotlines.

91-81 AJR-1 Dual J80 Route Procedure This advisory circular provides information to customers of the National Airspace System (NAS) in regards to the implementation and use of the dual J80 route procedure. The concept of the dual J80 route is to provide a near-term alternative for aircraft that normally file their flight on J80, westbound from New York and Philadelphia area airports. The dual J80 route virtually parallels the current J80 airway. This new procedure will be implemented as an unpublished route available on May 15, 2008. This route will be established and published as a “Q-Route” or Area area Navigation navigation (RNAV) route at a later date. The objective is to provide additional departure capability for westbound aircraft by alleviating constraints associated with airport departure flows that compete for J80, i.e., New York metropolitan and Philadelphia departures, and over flights from points north of the New York area. Current routes through this airspace transit very busy air traffic sectors, and delays are frequently encountered due tobecause of the large volume of aircraft that use these routes everyday. During summer months, these paths can be constrained by thunderstorms and turbulence. New York area departures will benefit from the additional route and increased flexibility, allowing our customers to receive more efficient air traffic services. 05-13-2008
91-56B ANM-115 Continuing Structural Integrity Program for Airplanes Provides guidance material to manufacturers and operators of transport category airplanes for use in developing a continuing structural integrity program to ensure safe operation of older airplanes throughout their operational lives. This guidance material applies to large transport airplanes which were certified under the fail-safe and fatigue requirements of Civil Air Regulations (CAR) 4b o 14 CFR part 25 of the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR), prior to Amendment 25-45, and which have a maximum gross weight greater than 75,000 pounds. Guidance material on this subject for other transports is provided in AC 91-60. The procedures set forth by this AC are applicable to the large transport category airplanes operated under Subpart D of part 91, and parts 121 and 125. 03-07-2008
91-59A AFS-300 Inspection and Care of General Aviation Aircraft Exhaust Systems - Change 1

This advisory circular (AC) emphasizes the safety hazards of poorly maintained aircraft exhaust systems (reciprocating powerplants) and highlights points at which exhaust system failures occur. Further, it provides information on the types of problems to expect and recommends that pilots perform ongoing preventive maintenance and that mechanics perform maintenance.

91-78 AFS-800 Use of Class 1 or Class 2 Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) This advisory circular (AC) provides aircraft owners, operators, and pilots operating aircraft under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, with information for removal of paper aeronautical charts and other documentation from the cockpit through the use of either portable or installed cockpit displays (electronic flight bags (EFB). 07-20-2007
91-77 AJR-1 General Aviation, Coded Departure Routes (CDR) Provides guidance to customers of the National Airspace System on the use of Coded Departure Routes. CDRs provide more flexibility for selecting an alternate departure for specific airport when traffic constraint such as thunderstorms, turbulence, and periods of excessive demand exist. Use of a CDR reduces key-entry inputs for controllers and minimizes read-back time between tower staff and pilots, which creates an abbreviated clearance. These abbreviated clearances provide an efficient means for air traffic control (ATC) to provide alternate routes if an airspace constraint occurs. 06-01-2007
91-36D ATO-R Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Flight Near Noise-Sensitive Areas Encourages pilots making VFR flights near noise-sensitive areas to fly at altitudes higher than the minimum permitted by regulation and on flight paths, which will reduce aircraft noise in such area. 09-17-2004
91-75 AFS-400 Attitude Indicator Provides a method to substitute an approved attitude indicator for the rate-of-turn indicator mandated by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91, section 91.205(d)(3). This AC excludes airplanes covered by section 91.205(d)(3)(i) and (ii). This AC is applicable to part 23-certificated airplanes (or airplanes certificated under earlier equivalent regulations) that weigh less than 12,500 pounds and are operated under part 91. 06-25-2003
91-58A AFS-820 Uus of Pyrotechnic isual Distress Signaling Devices

This advisory circular (AC) suggests standards and procedures for the acquisition, use, and storage of pyrotechnic visual distress signaling devices that are intended for use in aircraft emergencies.


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