|120-76D||AFS-400||Authorization for Use of Electronic Flight Bags This Flight Standards Service AC contains guidance on the operational use of Electronic Flight Bags (EFB). It is intended for all operators conducting flight operations under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 91 subpart K (part 91K), 121, 125, or 135 who want to replace required paper information or utilize other select applications as part of EFB functionality. This AC sets forth an acceptable means, but not the only means, to obtain Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) authorization for the operational use of EFBs utilizing both portable devices or installed equipment evaluated by the operator as their means to display operating information with an equivalent level of accessibility, usability, and reliability to the means they replace. This AC will assist operators in starting and managing the required elements of an EFB program as a means to support their authorization for use. In this AC, “installed equipment” indicates equipment or EFB components, which are installation approved under aircraft type design. For guidance on the installation of EFB components, refer to AC 20-173, Installation of Electronic Flight Bag Components.||10-27-2017|
|120-72A||AFS-300||Maintenance Human Factors Training 1.Provides descriptions of references and training materials to ensure that thereader can assemble a Maintenance Human Factors (MxHF) training programmatched to the applicable needs of their specific organization. 2.Provides many sources of current information to develop, implement,reinforce, and assess MxHF training materials. 3.Streamlines MxHF training development at the local level. 4.Is not mandatory, like any AC, and does not constitute a regulation||04-11-2017|
|120-71B||AFS-200||Standard Operating Procedures and Pilot Monitoring Duties for Flight Deck Crewmembers This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the design, development, implementation, evaluation, and updating of standard operating procedures (SOP), and for pilot monitoring (PM) duties. SOPs are universally recognized as fundamental to safe aviation operations. Their importance cannot be overstated, especially in light of the advent of PM standards with respect to the use of increasingly modernized automated systems. This AC provides a process for developing procedures that meet clear and specific requirements. Safe operations are founded on comprehensive SOPs made readily available within the manuals used by flight deck crewmembers. This AC also provides guidance on the definition and the training of PM duties and their integration into SOPs. Although this AC is directed towards Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 and part 135 air carriers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) encourages all air carriers, aircraft operators, pilot schools, and training centers to utilize this guidance.||01-10-2017|
Maintainer Fatigue Risk Management
This advisory circular (AC):
1. Describes the basic concepts of human fatigue and how it relates to safety for aviation maintenance organizations and individual maintainers.
2. Provides information on Fatigue Risk Management (FRM) in terms of fatigue hazards and mitigation strategies specific to aviation maintainers.
3. Describes the benefits of implementing FRM methods within aviation maintenance organizations.
4. Identifies methods for integrating FRM within a Safety Management System (SMS) (if applicable). Note: This AC is informational and is not mandatory. It does not constitute a regulation.
|120-114||AFS-200||Pilot Training and Checking (14 CFR Part 121 Subparts N and O, including Appendices E and F) This advisory circular (AC) provides information regarding pilot training and checking under Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 subparts N and O, including part 121 appendices E and F. It is intended to be used as a resource during the development, implementation, and revision of an air carrier’s pilot training and qualification program. This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for an air carrier to develop procedures and performance standards for pilot training and checking.||09-29-2016|
|120-78A||AFS-300||Electronic Signatures, Electronic Recordkeeping, and Electronic Manuals This advisory circular (AC), as any AC, is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation; rather, it provides standards and guidance for electronic signatures, electronic recordkeeping, and electronic manual systems. Electronic recordkeeping systems/programs are used to generate many types of records (e.g., load manifests, dispatch release, aircraft maintenance records, maintenance task cards, pilot training records, flight release, and/or airworthiness release). This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, for a certificate holder to utilize an electronic signature, electronic recordkeeping, and electronic manual systems.||06-22-2016|
|120-95A||AFS-200||Portable Oxygen Concentrators This advisory circular (AC) explains Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements for the use of portable oxygen concentrators (POC) on board aircraft. We intend for operators to use this AC as a resource during the development, implementation, and revision of standard operating procedures (SOP) and training programs regarding the use of POCs on board aircraft to increase the accessibility of air travel by passengers with disabilities.||05-24-2016|
Operations Control Center (OCC) for Helicopter Air Ambulance (HAA) Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and recommendations to assist helicopter air ambulance (HAA) operators with the development, implementation, and integration of an Operations Control Center (OCC). By requiring larger HAA operators (per Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 135, § 135.619) and encouraging smaller HAA operators to implement OCCs and operational control procedures, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) intends to further increase HAA safety through the implementation of OCCs.
Best Practices for Engine Time In Service Interval Extensions - Change 1
This advisory circular (AC) provides information on engine time in service interval extensions. The AC explains the background of engine time in service intervals as well as the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) regulatory requirements for time limitations and time in service intervals for engine overhauls. The AC also provides aircraft operators with information on the best practices for an engine time in service interval extension program and how to obtain an engine time in service interval extension.
Air Carrier Maintenance Programs
This advisory circular (AC) explains what the term “maintenance program” means. Our explanation describes the scope and content of air carrier aircraft maintenance programs. This is important as there is a significant difference between an air carrier maintenance program and an inspection program used in non-air carrier maintenance operations. We explain the background of these programs as well as the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) regulatory requirements. We also describe and explain each of the 10 elements of air carrier maintenance programs. When we use “must” or “will” in this AC, we are referencing actual regulatory requirements. When we use “we,” “us,” or “our” in this AC, we mean the FAA. When we use “you,” “your,” or “yours,” we mean you, the air carrier. When we use the term “person,” it has the same meaning as that in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 1, § 1.1.
|120-106A||AFS-300||Scope and Recommended Content for a Contractual Agreement Between an Air Carrier and a Maintenance Provider This revision of the advisory circular (AC) introduces new rulemaking regarding aircarrier contract maintenance programs and air carrier manual content pertaining to contract maintenance requirements and contract maintenance provider (MP) responsibilities required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, §§ 121.368 and 121.369(b)(10), and part 135, §§ 135.426 and 135.427(b)(10). Additionally, this AC outlines the scope and recommended content requirements for contractual agreements between an air carrier and its contract MPs. It explains the background and the necessity to interject specific requirements into a contractual agreement to ensure the air carrier fully supports the requirements imposed by 14 CFR. Because the air carrier has the primary responsibility for the airworthiness of its aircraft, it must ensure the proper controls are in place to assess, qualify, and authorize work performed for it by other persons, regardless of whether a certificated or noncertificated MP performs the work.||01-04-2016|
Stall Prevention and Recovery Training with Change 1
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for training, testing, and checking pilots to ensure correct responses to impending and full stalls. For air carriers, Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 contains the applicable regulatory requirements. Although this AC is directed to part 121 air carriers, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) encourages all air carriers, airplane operators, pilot schools, and training centers to use this guidance for stall prevention training, testing, and checking. This guidance was created for operators of transport category airplanes; however, many of the principles apply to all airplanes. The content was developed based on a review of recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations.
Use of Child Restraint Systems on Aircraft
This advisory circular (AC) provides information and practices regarding the use of child restraint systems (CRS) on aircraft. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) intends for operators to use this as a resource during the development, implementation, and revision of an air carrier’s standard operating procedures (SOP), Web sites and training programs regarding the use of CRSs.
FAA Initiatives. This AC is one of several FAA initiatives designed to address safety concerns of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB). It is a part of the FAA’s ongoing commitment to educate and inform aircraft operators, crewmembers, and airline passengers regarding the use of CRSs on aircraft in order to encourage and increase the use of approved CRSs. For more information, refer to the following FAA Web site: http://www.faa.gov/passengers/fly_children/.
Regulatory Requirements. In addition, this AC provides information to air carriers conducting Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 operations about the requirement to make available on their Web sites the width of the narrowest and widest passenger seats in each class of service for each make, model, and series (M/M/S) of airplane used in passenger-carrying operations. If an air carrier does not have a Web site, the air carrier is not required to establish a Web site in order to comply with this regulation.
Use of Liquid Water Equivalent System to Determine Holdover Times or Check Times for Anti-Icing Fluids
This advisory circular (AC) provides guidance for the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) standard for a Liquid Water Equivalent System (LWES). This AC applies to anyone proposing to design, procure, construct, install, activate, or maintain an LWES. An LWES is an automated weather measurement system that determines the Liquid Water Equivalent (LWE) rate in conditions of frozen or freezing precipitation. The LWE rate is used by the system with the appropriate endurance time (ET) regression equations and regression coefficients specified in an FAA-approved current database at http://220.127.116.11/RegressionInformation.html to determine the holdover time (HOT) or check time (CT) for an aircraft’s applied anti-icing fluid (Society of Automotive Engineer (SAE) Types I, II, III, and IV). Thus, the LWES incorporates a Holdover Time Determination System (HOTDS) or Check Time Determination System (CTDS). The HOT is used to determine how long a fluid would provide protection assuming that the current conditions do not change. The CT is used to determine the fluid’s current protection capability, while incorporating varying weather conditions.
Air Cargo Operations
This advisory circular (AC) provides operators with recommended procedures for managing cargo operations. Developing and using these comprehensive procedures is key to establishing a safe and efficient cargo operation. The AC provides guidance for aircraft cargo loading systems (CLS), restraints, special cargo, and unit load devices (ULD)This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. This AC describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of complying with applicable regulations to manage cargo operations.
Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternate Flight Deck Security Procedures
This advisory circular (AC) calls attention to RTCA Document (RTCA/DO-329) Aircraft Secondary Barriers and Alternative Flight Deck Security Procedures, as guidance to achieve effective protection of the flight deck as required by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 § 121.584(1)(a).
This AC is not mandatory and does not constitute a regulation. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, to comply with pertinent regulatory requirements.
Upset Prevention and Recovery Training - with Change
This advisory circular (AC) describes the recommended training for airplane Upset Prevention and Recovery Training (UPRT). The goal of this AC is to provide recommended practices and guidance for academic and flight simulation training device (FSTD) training for pilots to prevent developing upset conditions and ensure correct recovery responses to upsets. The AC was created from recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations. This AC provides guidance to Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers implementing the regulatory requirements of §§ 121.419, 121.423, 121.424, and 121.427. Although this AC is directed to air carriers to implement part 121 regulations, the FAA encourages all airplane operators, pilot schools, and training centers to implement UPRT and to use this guidance, as applicable to the type of airplane in which training is conducted.
Although a stall is by definition an upset, stall prevention and recovery training is contained in the current edition of AC 120-109, Stall Prevention and Recovery Training.
Flightcrew Member Line Operational Simulations: Line-Oriented Flight Training, Special Purpose Operational Training, Line Operational Evaluation
This advisory circular (AC) presents guidelines for the design and implementation of Line Operational Simulations (LOS), including Line-Oriented Flight Training (LOFT), Special Purpose Operational Training (SPOT), and Line Operational Evaluation (LOE) for flightcrew members. This document does not interpret the regulations; interpretations are issued only under established agency guidelines. As operators develop LOSs, they should develop an interdependent relationship between their human factors, Crew Resource Management (CRM), flight operations, and safety initiatives, because they are linked to a common safety goal.
This AC describes a means by which LOS scenarios are developed, scripted, tested, evaluated, and (in the case of LOFT and LOE) approved by the Administrator for use in an operator’s training program. The methodology set forth also achieves the Federal Aviation Administration’s (FAA) mandate to ensure that each certificate holder provides the highest level of safety in the public interest, while meeting the agency’s responsibility to reduce or eliminate the possibility or recurrence of accidents in air transportation.
Safety Management Systems for Aviation Service Providers
This advisory circular (AC) provides information for Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121 air carriers that are required to implement Safety Management Systems (SMS) based on 14 CFR part 5. Specifically, this document provides a description of regulatory requirements, guidance, and methods of developing and implementing an SMS. This AC may also be used by other aviation service providers interested in voluntarily developing an SMS based on the requirements in part 5.
An SMS is an organization-wide comprehensive and preventive approach to managing safety. An SMS includes a safety policy, formal methods for identifying hazards and mitigating risk, and promotion of a positive safety culture. An SMS also provides assurance of the overall safety performance of your organization. An SMS is intended to be designed and developed by your own people and should be integrated into your existing operations and business decisionmaking processes. The SMS will assist your organization’s leadership, management teams, and employees in making effective and informed safety decisions.
Part 5 specifies a basic set of processes integral to an effective SMS but does not specify particular methods for implementing these processes. In other words, the regulation defines "what" must be accomplished, not "how" it must be accomplished. This AC provides additional guidance on how the SMS may be developed to achieve the safety performance objectives outlined by your organization. As is demonstrated by this AC, there is no one-size-fits-all method for complying with the requirements of part 5. This design is intentional, in that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) expects each air carrier to develop an SMS that works for its unique operation. Thus, this AC provides guidance regarding designing and implementing acceptable methods of compliance with the requirements of part 5. These methods, however, are not the only means of compliance.
This advisory circular (AC) updates information regarding the hazards and risks of in-flight fires on transport category aircraft. The information includes recommended crewmember procedures and training for combating in-flight fires. The National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) issued Safety Recommendations A-11-87 through A-11-91 during the investigation of United Parcel Service (UPS) flight 6 accident on September 3, 2010 in the United Arab Emirates. The flightcrew encountered a "Fire Main Deck" master warning about 22 minutes into the flight; they declared an emergency and initiated a return to Dubai International Airport (DXB). The aircraft crashed inside an Emirate army post 9 miles from DXB, and both flightcrew members were fatally injured. NTSB findings revealed safety issues related to the training and use of oxygen mask; communicating with oxygen masks donned; and oxygen mask stowage and the smoke, fire, or fumes checklists. This revision to AC 120-80 is in response to NTSB recommendations A-11-88 through A-11-90.
In-flight Radiation Exposure
This advisory circular (AC) provides basic background information and links to sources of more detailed information that can be used to improve air carrier programs that inform crewmembers about in-flight ionizing radiation exposure.
Guidance for Conducting and Use of Flight Standardization Board Evaluations - With Change 1
a. Evaluating Manufactured or Modified Aircraft. It provides a means but not the only means of evaluating manufactured or modified aircraft by the use of standard systems, processes, and tests necessary to determine pilot training and qualification requirements.
b. Differences in Training and Qualification between Aircraft. It describes an acceptable means, but not the only means, of compliance with applicable Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) that provide for differences in training and qualification between aircraft with the same type certificate. It further describes an acceptable means for providing related aircraft differences training and qualification under provision of 14 CFR part 121 between aircraft with different type certificates that have been "designated" by the Administrator as related. Both of these processes use the provision of the Flight Standardization Board (FSB) report as the basis for the approval of pilot training and qualification necessary for the operation of aircraft. This AC is intended to enhance safety by:
(1) Providing a standard method of assessing applicant programs.
(2) Directly relating pilot training and qualification requirements to fleet characteristics, operating concepts, and pilot assignments.
(3) Permitting better industry planning and management by outlining what FAA requirements apply, what training resources or devices are needed, and what alternatives are possible.
(4) Encouraging aircraft manufacturers to design with the goal of developing common characteristics between related aircraft
(5) Providing a recommended framework for application of suitable credits or constraints to better address new technology and future safety enhancements.
Fatigue Risk Management Systems for Aviation Safety
(1) Describes the basic concepts of Fatigue Risk Management Systems (FRMS), as prescribed in Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 117, § 117.7, and how they relate to aviation industry employees safely performing their duties.
(2) Provides information on the components of an FRMS as applied to aviation, and on how to implement an FRMS within an aviation operation.
(3) Defines an FRMS as an operator-specific process; therefore, while all FRMSs will have common elements, the specifics will be tailored to a certificate holder’s particular conditions.
(4) Provides (in Appendix 2, Fatigue Risk Management System Development) the certificate holder with the necessary detailed guidance to prepare for the FRMS approval process, develop the required documentation, develop and apply fatigue risk management (FRM) and Safety Assurance (SA) processes, collect and analyze data, develop flightcrew FRMS operations procedures and a step-by-step process required for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) evaluation and validation of the proposed FRMS application.
Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP) Acceptance/Review
This advisory circular (AC) establishes guidelines for U.S. operators to use when reviewing Foreign Terminal Instrument Procedures (FTIP). Occasionally, the author uses the word "must" or similar language when he deems the desired actions critical. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) does not intend for the use of such language to add to, interpret, or relieve a duty imposed by Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR).
Incorporation of Electrical Wiring Interconnection Systems Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into an Operator’s Maintenance Program (Including Change 1)
On November 8, 2007, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) published the Enhanced Airworthiness Program for Airplane Systems/Fuel Tank Safety (EAPAS/FTS) final rule. The intent of the rule is to help ensure the continued safety of commercial airplanes by improving the design, installation, and maintenance of electrical wiring systems. Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 121, § 121.1111, and part 129, § 129.111 include requirements for operators to revise their maintenance programs to include instructions for continued airworthiness (ICA), which include inspections and procedures for the electrical wiring interconnection systems (EWIS). This advisory circular (AC) only addresses the EWIS requirements and provides guidance accordingly. The current edition of AC 120-97, Incorporation of Fuel Tank System Instructions for Continued Airworthiness into Operator Maintenance or Inspection Programs, provides guidance for operators to comply with the fuel tank safety (FTS) requirements in the EAPAS/FTS rule.